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1: Rev Bras Enferm. 2005 Mar-Apr;58(2):208-13.

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[Wound treatment: scientific production analysis published in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem from 1970-2003]

[Article in Portuguese]

Pereira AL, Bachion MM.

Aluna do Programa de Pos-Graduacao Mestrado em Enfermagem, da Faculdade de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Goias.

This systematic review aimed to analyze the scientific production concerning the use of products in the treatment of wounds, published by REBEn from 1970 to 2003. We consulted all numbers of the journal published in the period, identifying 41 articles of interest. After an appraisal reading we included 11 papers in the sample. We identified a larger publication in the decade of 1990, prevailing authors of the attendance area, almost-experimental plan and experience repor. The studied products were papain, propolis, sugar, Unna boot, activated coal, transparent film, amniotic membrane, albumin, collagenase, hydrocolloid dressing, calcium alginate, anti-bacterial agents, essential greasing acids, viscose fibers and polyester. The findings demonstrated they denote positive effects of the use of the products.

PMID: 16334190 [PubMed - in process]

2: Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Nov;26(5):343-56.

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Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ.

Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

Publication Types:


PMID: 16323269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Dec;46(6):e125-9.

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Acute renal failure induced by a Brazilian variety of propolis.

Li YJ, Lin JL, Yang CW, Yu CC.

Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees and used in hive construction and maintenance. Cumulative evidence suggests that propolis may have anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, and antitumor properties. In addition to topical applications, products containing propolis have been used increasingly as dietary supplements. Although reports of allergic reactions are not uncommon, propolis is reputed to be relatively nontoxic. Its systemic toxicity is rarely reported and hence may be underestimated. This is the first report of propolis-induced acute renal failure. A 59-year-old man required hemodialysis for acute renal failure. The patient had cholangiocarcinoma and had ingested propolis for 2 weeks before presentation. Renal function improved after propolis withdrawal, deteriorated again after reexposure, and then returned to a normal level after the second propolis withdrawal. This case indicates that propolis can induce acute renal failure and emphasizes the need for vigilance and care when propolis is used as a medicine or dietary supplement.

Publication Types:

       Case Reports

PMID: 16310564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 16;53(23):8957-62.

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Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and antimutagenicity of propolis from Tucuman, Argentina.

Nieva Moreno MI, Zampini IC, Ordonez RM, Jaime GS, Vattuone MA, Isla MI.

Instituto de Estudios Vegetales Dr Antonio Rodolfo Sampietro, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 461, 4000 San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina.

This study evaluates the toxic, genotoxic/mutagenic, and antimutagenic effects of propolis extract from Amaicha del Valle, Tucuman, Argentina. The cytotoxicity assays carried out with the lethality test of Artemia salina revealed that the LD50 was around 100 microg/mL. Propolis extracts showed no toxicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and Allium cepa at concentrations that have antibiotic and antioxidant activities. Otherwise, for the testing doses, neither genotoxicity nor mutagenicity was found in any sample. The propolis extracts were able to inhibit the mutagenesis of isoquinoline (IQ) and 4-nitro o-phenylenediamine (NPD) with ID50 values of 40 and 20 microg/plate, respectively. From this result, the studied propolis may be inferred to contain some chemical compounds capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of direct-acting and indirect-acting mutagens. A compound isolated from Amaicha del Valle propolis, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone, showed cytotoxic activity (LC50 values of 0.5 microg/mL) but was not genotoxic or mutagenic. Furthermore, this compound was able to inhibit the mutagenicity of IQ (ID50 values of 1 microg/plate) but was unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of NPD. Our results suggest a potential anticarcinogenic activity of Amaicha del Valle propolis and the chalcone isolated from it.

PMID: 16277388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Aug;100(5):563-6. Epub 2005 Sep 15.

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Propolis: anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity and synergism with antimicrobial drugs.

Fernandes Junior A, Balestrin EC, Betoni JE, Orsi Rde O, da Cunha Mde L, Montelli AC.

Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Propolis is a natural resinous substance collected by bees from tree exudates and secretions.
Its antimicrobial activity has been investigated and inhibitory action on Staphylococcus aureus growth was evaluated. The in vitro synergism between ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and antimicrobial drugs by two susceptibility tests (Kirby and Bauer and E-Test) on 25 S. aureus strains was evaluated. Petri dishes with sub-inhibitory concentrations of EEP were incubated with 13 drugs using Kirby and Bauer method and synergism between EEP and five drugs [choramphenicol (CLO), gentamicin (GEN), netilmicin (NET), tetracycline (TET), and vancomycin (VAN)] was observed. Nine drugs were assayed by the E-test method and five of them exhibited a synergism [CLO, GEN, NET, TET, and clindamycin (CLI)]. The results demonstrated the synergism between EEP and antimicrobial drugs, especially those agents that interfere on bacterial protein synthesis.

PMID: 16184236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):243-8.

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Detection of galangin-induced cytoplasmic membrane damage in Staphylococcus aureus by measuring potassium loss.

Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ.

School of Pharmacy, The Robert Gordon University, Schoolhill, Aberdeen, Scotland AB10 1FR., UK.

Galangin is one of the active antimicrobial principles of propolis or 'bee glue' and Helichrysum aureonitens, a perennial herb used by South African indigenes to treat infection. The effect of this compound and antibacterial agents with known mechanisms of action upon the cytoplasmic membrane integrity of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by comparing potassium loss profiles from bacterial cell suspensions. Using an agar dilution assay, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the flavonol galangin, the bacteriostatic antibiotic novobiocin and the bactericidal antibiotic penicillin G against Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571 were determined as being 50 microg/mL, 62.5 ng/mL and 31.3 ng/mL, respectively. When 5x10(7)cfu/mL Staphylococcus aureus were suspended in 'potassium-free' media containing 50 microg/mL galangin, a 60-fold decrease in viability was observed after 12 h. Populations of 1x10(9) cfu/mL Staphylococcus aureus incubated for 12 h in 50 microg/mL galangin lost 21% more potassium than untreated control populations. Novobiocin had no effect on potassium loss, but populations incubated in 31.3 ng/mL penicillin G exhibited a 6% increase in potassium loss. This data clearly demonstrates that galangin causes a significant increase in potassium loss from Staphylococcus aureus cells, which may be attributed to either direct damage to the cytoplasmic membrane or indirect damage effected through autolysis/weakening of the cell wall and consequent osmotic lysis.

PMID: 15985350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):198-202.

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Antibacterial effect of plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori.

Nostro A, Cellini L, Di Bartolomeo S, Di Campli E, Grande R, Cannatelli MA, Marzio L, Alonzo V.

Pharmaco-Biological Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of plant extracts as alternative and[sol ]or as active agents supporting antibiotics for treating Helicobacter pylori infection. The effect of either, ethanolic or aqueous extracts from 17 plant materials were studied against one H. pylori standard strain and 11 clinical isolates using a disc diffusion test and by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on solid media. An inhibitory activity against H. pylori strains was recorded in a large percentage of tested plants. MIC values of ethanolic extracts were from two to four concentration steps lower than the aqueous ones. In particular, ethanolic extracts of Cuminum cyminum L. and Propolis expressed MIC90 values of 0.075 mg/mL. The results show a significant in vitro effect of plant extracts against H. pylori that could be considered a valuable support in the treatment of the infection and may contribute to the development of new and safe agents for inclusion in anti-H. pylori regimens. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 15934015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005 May;89(2):127-32.

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Propolis solution for the treatment of chronic vaginitis.

Imhof M, Lipovac M, Kurz Ch, Barta J, Verhoeven HC, Huber JC.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AKH Vienna, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% propolis solution in recurrent vaginitis. METHOD: Fifty-four patients with recurrent vaginal infections having undergone at least one cycle of antibiotic treatment were instructed to apply a 5% aqueous propolis solution as a vaginal douche for seven days. Vaginal smears and specific symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 14 days after treatment. Long-term well-being was assessed by telephone interview six months after follow-up. RESULT: At the follow-up, the vaginal smears of 41 patients (75.9%) had improved. Forty-seven patients (87%) reported reliefs concerning at least one complaint. Associated improvement of smear and well-being was observed in 36 women (66.7%). After 6 months, 33 patients (61.1%) were satisfied with their condition without having undergone further treatment. CONCLUSION: Propolis may have a role as an alternative treatment for chronic vaginal infection.

Publication Types:

       Clinical Trial

PMID: 15847875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):221-8.

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Antibacterial activity of Turkish propolis and its qualitative and quantitative chemical composition.

Popova M, Silici S, Kaftanoglu O, Bankova V.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

The antibacterial activity of propolis from different regions of Turkey was studied, accompanied by TLC and GC-MS analyses of its chemical composition and spectrophotometric quantification of the most important active principles. All six samples were active against the bacterial test strains used; however, samples 1 (Yozgat), 2 (Izmir) and 3 (Kayseri) were more active than samples 4 (Adana), 5 (Erzurum) and 6 (Artvin). By TLC comparison all samples were found to contain poplar taxonomic markers but in samples 4 (Adana), 5 (Erzurum) and 6 (Artvin), different substances were observed, which were not present in P. nigra L. bud exudate. The typical poplar samples 1 (Yozgat), 2 (Izmir) and 3 (Kayseri) displayed very similar phenolic and flavonoid content. Samples 4 (Adana), 5 (Erzurum) and 6 (Artvin) were characterized by low phenolic and very low flavonoid concentrations. Qualitative analysis by GC-MS revealed that sample 4 (Adana) contained diterpenic acids and high percent of cinnamyl cinnamate, sample 5 (Erzurum)-significant amounts of hydroxy fatty acids and triterpenic alcohoLs, and sample 6 (Artvin)-phenolic glycerides, characteristic for the bud exudate of Populus euphratica Oliv. The results confirm the importance of phenolics for propolis antibacterial activity, and the significance of P. nigra L. as a propolis source, which provides the hive with the best defense against microorganisms.

PMID: 15830845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Contact Dermatitis. 2005 Feb;52(2):96-101.

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Rosacea and contact allergy to cosmetics and topical medicaments--retrospective analysis of multicentre surveillance data 1995-2002.

Jappe U, Schnuch A, Uter W.

Department of Dermatology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The role of contact allergy in rosacea has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective study, 361 out of 76,697 patients tested and documented by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology between 1995 and 2002 had rosacea. Patch tests included standard series and constituents of cosmetics and topical medicaments. 118/361 had additionally been patch tested with their own cosmetics/medicaments. Positive reactions occurred to nickel (II) sulfate in 9.3%, fragrance mix in 8.8%, thimerosal in 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae resin in 5.9%, potassium dichromate in 4.6% and propolis in 2.8%. Whereas rosacea patients had a significantly higher risk of contact allergy to propolis compared to the remaining patients, in an age- and sex-adjusted analysis, contact allergy to nickel was significantly less frequent in this group. For Lyral, the risk was elevated, albeit not significantly. Only 2/329 patients were positive to neomycin sulfate and 1/100 to gentamicin sulfate, among the panel of (topical) antibiotics tested. Among 118 patients tested with their own products, 3 were tested to metronidazole, 1 reacting positively. Irritant or doubtful patch test reactions were provoked by various substances (vehicles, oxidants and preservatives of various creams), which might also be clinically important, considering the heightened sensitivity of rosaceous skin.

Publication Types:

       Multicenter Study

PMID: 15725288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):1166-72.

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Some chemical composition and biological activity of northern Argentine propolis.

Isla MI, Paredes-Guzman JF, Nieva-Moreno MI, Koo H, Park YK.

Department of Food Science, College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6177, 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Twenty-five samples of propolis were collected from seven different regions in northern Argentina; ethanolic extracts of propolis were prepared from all samples, and the respective samples were examined for UV absorption spectra, RPHPTLC, RPHPLC, antimicrobial activity, antiradical activity, and total phenolic content. It was found that 16 of the 25 samples showed a phenolic profile similar to that found in samples from southern Brazil and corresponding to poplar-based propolis and that the rest of the samples showed a different profile and higher antimicrobial and antiradical activities.

PMID: 15713035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec;75(7-8):683-9.

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New polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Venezuelan propolis.

Trusheva B, Popova M, Naydenski H, Tsvetkova I, Gregorio Rodriguez J, Bankova V.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Two new polyisoprenylated benzophenones, 18-ethyloxy-17-hydroxy-17,18-dihydroscrobiculatone A and 18-ethyloxy-17-hydroxy-17,18-dihydroscrobiculatone B, together with the known scrobiculatones A and B, were isolated from Venezuelan propolis. The scrobiculatones A and B showed significant antibacterial activity and moderate toxicity to Artemia salina nauplii.

PMID: 15567244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004 Nov 1;240(1):111-6.

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Galangin expresses bactericidal activity against multiple-resistant bacteria: MRSA, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pepeljnjak S, Kosalec I.

Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39/I, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.

The antimicrobial activity of three propolis ethanol extracts (EEP) was examined for various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species, including multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. EEP had a good bactericidal activity against Gram-positive species, and all multiple-resistant bacterial strains tested were sensitive to EEP. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were lower in samples of higher flavonoid content (from 0.65 to 7.81 mg mL(-1)), indicating the influence of the concentration of some potent bactericidal compound(s) in propolis or synergism among some bactericidal compounds. Antimicrobial-guided separation of flavonoid aglycones (bioassay in situ on thin-layer chromatogram) showed that galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is one compound in EEP with bactericidal activity. Galangin was isolated by preparative chromatography. After determining the quantity present, the MIC against multiple-resistant bacteria was determined. The MIC of galangin against multiple-resistant bacterial strains was significantly lower (from 0.16 to 0.44 mg mL(-1), p < 0.05) than that of EEP. The bactericidal activity of galangin against P. aeruginosa strains was present at 0.17+/-0.05 mg mL(-1).

PMID: 15500987 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Pesqui Odontol Bras. 2004 Apr-Jun;18(2):174-9. Epub 2004 Aug 5.

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Natural medicaments in endodontics -- a comparative study of the anti-inflammatory action.

Silva FB, Almeida JM, Sousa SM.

Center of Biological Sciences and Professions of Health, University of Sacred Heart, Bauru.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the irritant potential of propolis, Casearia sylvestris, Otosporin and saline solution (control). Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were selected, anesthetized and four experimental sites were designed on their backs. Injections of 2% Evans blue were intravenously administered in the lateral caudal vein and 0.1 ml of the tested solutions was injected intradermally into the experimental sites. The animals were killed 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 hours after the injection of the solutions. Each piece of skin containing the lesion was immersed in formamide and incubated at 45 masculine C for 72 h. After filtration, optical density was measured in a spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by a 2-way non-parametric test. The highest values of extracted dye were observed at 3 hours characterizing a peak in the inflammatory process. Propolis was the least irritant solution. The natural medicaments tested in this study may be a valuable alternative for endodontic treatment.

Publication Types:

       Clinical Trial

PMID: 15311323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Pharmacol Res. 2004 Mar;49(3):287-92.

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Effect of water extract of Turkish propolis on tuberculosis infection in guinea-pigs.

Yildirim Z, Hacievliyagil S, Kutlu NO, Aydin NE, Kurkcuoglu M, Iraz M, Durmaz R.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Inonu School of Medicine, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Kampus, 44069, Malatya, Turkey.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H(37)R(v))-infected guinea-pig model was used to investigate the effect of water extract of propolis (WEP). After subcutaneous inoculation of tubercle bacilli, each animal received oral WEP (n=9), isoniazid (n=5) or saline (n=6) as placebo and were sacrificed 30 days later. Formation of necrosis was less prominent in the group treated with WEP, but was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The granuloma formation in the same group was more prominent than the placebo and isoniazid groups; however, this finding failed to reach statistical significance by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P>0.05). These findings suggest that Turkish WEP may have a limited effect on the development of tuberculosis infection in this guinea-pig model.

PMID: 14726226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Microbiol Res. 2003;158(4):353-7.

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and synergism between propolis and antimicrobial drugs.

Stepanovic S, Antic N, Dakic I, Svabic-Vlahovic M.

Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extract of 13 propolis (EEP) samples from different regions of Serbia against 39 microorganisms (14 resistant or multiresistant to antibiotics), and to determine synergistic activity between antimicrobials and propolis. Antimicrobial activity of propolis samples was evaluated by agar diffusion and agar dilution method. The synergistic action of propolis with antimicrobial drugs was assayed by the disc diffusion method on agar containing subinhibitory concentrations of propolis. Obtained results indicate that EEP, irrespectively of microbial resistance to antibiotics, showed significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC 0.078%-1.25% of EEP) and yeasts (0.16%-1.25%), while Gram-negative bacteria were less susceptible (1.25%-->5%). Enterococcus faecalis was the most resistant Gram-positive bacterium, Salmonella spp. the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans the most resistant yeast. EEP showed synergism with selected antibiotics, and displayed ability to enhance the activities of antifungals. The shown antimicrobial potential of propolis alone or in combination with certain antibiotics and antifungals is of potential medical interest.

PMID: 14717457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Clin Chim Acta. 2003 Dec;338(1-2):11-6.

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Protective role of Egyptian propolis against tumor in mice.

El-khawaga OA, Salem TA, Elshal MF.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura City, Egypt.

BACKGROUND: Propolis has numerous biologic activities including antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. The present work is aimed to study the effect of crude Egyptian propolis on tumor in mice induced by Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma (EAC) cell line. RESULTS: The administration of propolis (160 mg/kg body weight), by gastric intubation 2 h before the intraperitoneal injection of EAC, effectively inhibited tumor growth and the proliferation of EAC. The tumor volume was markedly reduced from 7+/-0.9 ml in EAC-infected mice to 1.6+/-0.95 ml in propolis-treated mice. Also, the lipid peroxide level which was 13.3+/-1.24 nmol malodialdehyde (MDA)/mg protein in EAC infected mice was significantly decreased to 3.3+/-2.1 nmol MDA/mg protein. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) concentrations were markedly increased in propolis-treated mice. This effect was associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Administration of propolis 2 h before injection of EAC arrested cells in G0/G1 phase and resulted in a decrease in the viability, DNA, total RNA and protein level of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Crude Egyptian propolis has a strong inhibitory activity against tumors. The anti-tumor mechanism may be mediated by preventing oxidative damage and induction of apoptosis.

PMID: 14637260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Oct;88(2-3):189-93.

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Flavonoids and trypanocidal activity of Bulgarian propolis.

Prytzyk E, Dantas AP, Salomao K, Pereira AS, Bankova VS, De Castro SL, Neto FR.

Ladetec, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Cidade Universitaria, CT Bl.
A, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Acetone and ethanol extracts of two Bulgarian propolis samples (Bur and Lov) were investigated by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HT-HRGC-MS), and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated. The ethanol extracts--Et-Bur and Et-Lov--showed similar composition, with a high content of flavonoids, and strong inhibitory activity against T. cruzi proliferative epimastigotes, which were more susceptible than trypomastigotes. In the presence of blood, the activity of Et-Bur or Et-Lov against trypomastigotes was similar to that of the standard drug, crystal violet. Both extracts also showed similar and significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, while being inactive against Escherichia coli. The acetone extract, Ket-Bur, was more active than Et-Bur against both forms of T. cruzi.

PMID: 12963141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: J Med Microbiol. 2003 May;52(Pt 5):417-9.

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Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro by Bulgarian propolis: preliminary report.

Boyanova L, Derejian S, Koumanova R, Katsarov N, Gergova G, Mitov I, Nikolov R, Krastev Z.

Department of Microbiology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Bee glue (propolis) possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and immunostimulating activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Bulgarian propolis on Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro. Activity of 30% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) against 38 clinical isolates of H. pylori was evaluated by using the agar-well diffusion method. Ethanol was used as a control. In addition, the effect of propolis on the growth of 26 H. pylori and 18 Campylobacter strains was tested by the disc diffusion method. Mean diameters of H. pylori growth inhibition by the agar-well diffusion method, using 30, 60 or 90 microl EEP or 30 microl ethanol per well, were 17.8, 21.2, 28.2 and 8.5 mm, respectively. EEP was significantly more active than ethanol against H. pylori (P < 0.001). The results obtained by the disc diffusion method were similar. The use of moist propolis discs resulted in mean diameters of growth inhibition of 21.4 mm for H. pylori and 13.6 mm for Campylobacter spp. Dried propolis discs exhibited antibacterial effect against 73.1% of H. pylori isolates, with a considerable zone of growth inhibition (> or = 15 mm) in 36.4% of isolates. Using dried propolis discs resulted in mean diameters of growth inhibition of 12.4 mm for H. pylori and 11.6 mm for Campylobacter spp. In conclusion, Bulgarian propolis possesses considerable antibacterial activity against H. pylori, and can also inhibit the growth of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The potential of propolis in the prevention or treatment of H. pylori infection is worth further extensive evaluation.

PMID: 12721318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):69-73.

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Antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from two different regions of Anatolia.

Kartal M, Yildiz S, Kaya S, Kurucu S, Topcu G.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara, Turkey.

Antimicrobial activity of two propolis samples from Kazan and Marmaris regions in Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was tested with four different ethanolic extracts (30, 50, 70, and 96% ethanol) of each sample against seven Gram positive, four Gram negative bacteria and one fungus culture. The activity was found to be mainly due to caffeic acid and its esters. An isomeric mixture containing 3,3-dimethylallyl caffeate, and isopent-3-enyl caffeate was isolated from Kazan propolis samples.

PMID: 12686444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Phytother Res. 2003 Mar;17(3):285-9.

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Brazilian propolis: physicochemical properties, plant origin and antibacterial activity on periodontopathogens.

Santos FA, Bastos EM, Maia AB, Uzeda M, Carvalho MA, Farias LM, Moreira ES.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Propolis samples collected in the dry and rainy seasons, from an experimental apiary located in a cerrado vegetation region in Brazil were used in this study. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of 31 pollen types, secretory hairs (genus Baccharis) and fragments of plant epidermis. The oxidation rates and the wax content of the samples after physicochemical analyses were in agreement with the Cuban Guideline NRAG 870-88. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed a similar pattern of chromatograms, characterized by the presence of ten phenolic compounds. There was no significant difference in the pro fi le of phenolic compounds and also in the total flavonoid concentration in propolis samples collected in different seasons. Antibacterial assays were performed by the method of dilution of an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) in agar (v/v%) and showed that all 16 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains tested were inhibited by propolis concentrations of 0.1% to 0.25%, and did not grow at all at 0.5%. The growth inhibition of six Fusobacterium spp. and 16 black-pigmented anaerobes was observed at concentrations of 0.05% to 0.1%, and no growth was observed at 0.25%. There was no effect of seasonality on the inhibitory activity of propolis. The antibiotics tetracycline and meropenem were used as positive controls. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12672164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Pol J Vet Sci. 2002;5(4):223-5.

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Investigation on the inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni growth with the applications of some preservatives, medicines, herbs and herb preparations.

Uradzinski J, Szteyn J, Kafel S.

Department of Animal Products Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 14, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of chosen preservatives, medicines, herbs and herb preparations on 39 Campylobacter jejuni strains, which were isolated from fresh poultry carcasses. De-Nol and ventrisol were used in the original concentration. Propolis, propolan, artecholin and aukalen were of pharmacies origin. The rest of substances examined were 10% water solutions. Out of 11 substances examined, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, De-Nol and ventrisol exerted the strongest inhibitory action on Campylobacter jejuni.

PMID: 12512554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Fitoterapia. 2002 Nov;73 Suppl 1:S1-6.

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Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine.

Castaldo S, Capasso F.

Department of I.N.P.S. of Naples, via Medina 63, Naples, Italy.

Propolis is one of the few natural remedies that has maintained its popularity over a long period of time. The pharmacologically active molecules in the propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have multiple effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, propolis and its components have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, propolis has been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, clinical studies to substantiate these claims are required.

Publication Types:


PMID: 12495704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Pol J Vet Sci. 2002;5(3):197-202.

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The use of some immunomodulators and non-antibiotic drugs in a prophylaxis and treatment of mastitis.

Malinowski E.

Department of Pathophysiology of Reproduction and Mammary Gland. National Veterinary Research Institute, Powstancow Wikp, 10, 85-090 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Antibiotics are widely used in treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis, but their antibacterial and therapeutic efficacy continues to decrease. New methods of prophylaxis of mastitis with the use of vaccines and biological response modifiers are reviewed. Prophylactic activity of staphylococcal vaccines should be investigated in the future because of difficulties in successful treatment of infections caused by these organisms. Vaccination with J5 bacterin (0111:B4) reduced duration of IMI and local signs of clinical coliform-mastitis. Some immunomodulators proved to be effective in treatment of mastitis during lactating period. Promising results were obtained with the use of giseng saponin, herbal gel, herbal extracts, propolis, lysosubtilin, antibacterial proteins, and lysozyme dimer especially.

Publication Types:


PMID: 12448082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Mar-Apr;57(3-4):395-402.

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Egyptian propolis: 3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of propolis from reclaimed lands.

Hegazi AG, Abd El Hady FK.

Department of Parasitology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The free radical scavenging effect of two propolis samples collected from reclaimed land, Egypt as well as of vitamin C and caffeic acid in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical system was determined. The antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) activity was also investigated. The results of the free radical scavenging effect of El-Saff and Ismailia propolis showed a concentration-dependent activity. The antioxidant activity was varied according to the examined material. It was obvious that caffeic acid and vitamin C showed the highest activity if compared with the propolis samples. El- Saff propolis had a higher antioxidant activity than Ismailia propolis, it showed a higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and a higher anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans. While the Ismailia propolis had a higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, than El-Saff propolis. The chemical composition of propolis samples was investigated by GC/MS, where 75 compounds were identified, 22 being new for propolis. The Ismailia propolis was characterized by the presence of a highly significant amount of aromatic acid esters (47.3%) and triterpenoids (17.3%), while El-Saff propolis contained 3% and 1.9% respectively. The new esters belonged to 4-methoxyhydrocinnamic acid, hydroferulic acid and ferulic acid. El-Saff propolis had a very high significant amount (27%) of 2,6-bis-(pentanyloxy)-4-pentanylphenethanol, which is also a new compound for propolis.

PMID: 12064746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Mar-Apr;57(3-4):386-94.

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Egyptian propolis: 2. Chemical composition, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of East Nile Delta propolis.

Abd El Hady FK, Hegazi AG.

Department of Chemistry of Natural Products, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Three propolis samples from East Nile Delta, Egypt were collected. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS,103 compounds were identified, 20 being new for propolis. Dakahlia propolis was a typical poplar propolis but it contained two new caffeate esters and two new triterpenoids. Ismailia propolis was characterized by the presence of new triterpenic acid methyl esters and it did not contain any aromatic acids, esters and flavonoids. Sharkia propolis was characterized by the presence of caffeate esters only, some di- and triterpenoids. The antiviral (Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Reo-Virus) and antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) activities of propolis samples were investigated. Dakahlia propolis showed the highest antiviral activity against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the highest antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While Ismailia propolis had the highest antiviral activity against Reo-virus. Sharkia propolis showed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and moderate antiviral activity against infectious bursal disease virus and reovirus.

PMID: 12064745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Oral Sci. 2002 Mar;44(1):41-8.

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Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis.

Martins RS, Pereira ES Jr, Lima SM, Senna MI, Mesquita RA, Santos VR.

Department of Clinical Pathology and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Minas Gerais Federal University, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The present study assessed the susceptibility of Candida albicans strains, collected from HIV-positive patients with oral candidiasis, to a commercial 20% ethanol propolis extract (EPE) and compare it to the inhibitory action of the standardized antifungal agents nystatin (NYS), clotrimazole (CL), econazole (EC), and fluconazole (FL). Twelve C. albicans strains collected from HIV-positive patients with oral candidiasis were tested. The inhibition zones were measured with a pachimeter and the results are reported as means and standard deviation (M +/- SD). Data were analyzed statistically by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. EPE inhibited all the C. albicans strained tested. No significant difference was observed between the results obtained with NYS and EPE, while significant differences were observed between EPE and other antifungals. The C. albicans strains tested showed resistance to the remaining antifungal agents. The propolis extract used in this study inhibited the in vitro growth of C. albicans collected from HIV-seropositive Brazilian patients, creating/forming inhibition zones like those ones formed by NYS. This fact suggests that commercial EPE could be an alternative medicine in the treatment of candidiasis from HIV-positive patients. However, in vivo studies of the effect of EPE are needed to determine its possible effects on the oral mucosa.

PMID: 12058869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr;80(1):1-7.

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Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria.

Santos FA, Bastos EM, Uzeda M, Carvalho MA, Farias LM, Moreira ES, Braga FC.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratorio de Biologia de Microrganismos, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 486, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270 901, MG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assayed bacterium species were susceptible to propolis extract. The two fractionation methodologies yielded fractions which were active against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 64 to 1024 microg/ml. TLC and HPLC analyses of the extract and of active fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds of varied polarity. None of the assayed fractions was more active than the extract, suggesting that the antibacterial activity is probably due to the synergistic effect of several compounds.

PMID: 11891080 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2001 Nov-Dec;56(11-12):1112-5.

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Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of Turkish propolis.

Keskin N, Hazir S, Baser KH, Kurkcuoglu M.

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Beytepe, Ankara-Turkey.

The antibacterial activities of propolis samples have been examined in vitro, according to the principles accepted for the determination of a similar activity of antibiotics with the use of solid and liquid media. It has been found that propolis extracts showed antibacterial activity through a range of commonly encountered gram positive cocci (S. aureus, beta hem. Streptococus), but had weak activity against gram negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa). GC/MS analysis showed that propolis samples contain a variety of chemical compounds including aromatic compounds, fatty acid esters and sesquiterpenes.

PMID: 11837665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(7-8):593-6.

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New bioactive chalcones in propolis from El Salvador.

Popova M, Bankova V, Spassov S, Tsvetkova I, Naydenski C, Silva MV, Tsartsarova M.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

2',3'-Dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (1) and 2',3',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-chalcone, two new chalcones, were isolated from propolis from El Salvador. The compounds showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity and moderate toxicity to Artemia salina nauplii.

PMID: 11531095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Anticancer Res. 2001 May-Jun;21(3B):1665-71.

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PM-3, a benzo-gamma-pyran derivative isolated from propolis, inhibits growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Luo J, Soh JW, Xing WQ, Mao Y, Matsuno T, Weinstein IB.

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Propolis has numerous biologic activities including antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Several components isolated from propolis have been shown to have anticancer activity. This study demonstrates that the compound PM-3 (3-[2-dimethyl-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzopyran]-6-propenoic acid) isolated from Brazilian propolis markedly inhibits the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. This effect was associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with PM-3 arrested cells in the G1 phase and resulted in a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. PM-3 also inhibited the expression of cyclin D1 at the transcriptional level when examined in cyclin D1 promoter luciferase assays. Induction of apoptosis by PM-3 occurred within 48 hours after treatment of MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 treated cells also displayed a decrease in the level of the estrogen receptor (ER) protein and inhibition of estrogen response element (ERE) promoter activity. Therefore, PM-3 merits further investigation with respect to breast cancer chemoprevention or therapy.

PMID: 11497245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2001 Jan-Feb;56(1-2):82-8.

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Egyptian propolis: 1-antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Upper Egypt propolis.

Hegazi AG, El Hady FK.

Department of Parasitology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples collected from Upper Egypt against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was evaluated. There was a variation in the antimicrobial activity according to the propolis origin. Banisweif propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, but Fayoum propolis had moderate activity against all tested pathogens. Propolis collected from Assiut and Souhag gave lower antimicrobial activity. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS, 71 compounds were identified, 14 being new for propolis. Banisweif propolis is characterized by the presence of 7 caffeate esters and 4 triterpenoids. Fayoum propolis showed the highest amount of lactic acid and the presence of 3 chalcones. But Assiut propolis is characterized by the presence of 4 prenylated coumarates. Souhag propolis is characterized by the presence of 5 aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and some other new compounds to propolis.

PMID: 11302219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Phytomedicine. 2001 Jan;8(1):16-23.

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Hepatoprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of constituents from Brazilian propolis.

Banskota AH, Tezuka Y, Adnyana IK, Ishii E, Midorikawa K, Matsushige K, Kadota S.

Department of Natural Products Chemistry, Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Propolis is a resinous hive product collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It is extensively used in food, beverage and in folk medicine for treating various ailments and reported to have broad spectrum of biological activities. The hepatoprotective activity of propolis and constituents from its MeOH extract belonging to various classes were tested on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cell death in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. The result indicated that hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic extract of tropical Brazilian propolis is mainly due to phenolic compounds including flavonoids. All the four isolated flavonoids possessed stronger inhibitory activity (IC50, < 25 microM) than silibinin (IC50, 39.6 microM) on TNF-alpha-induced cell death. The labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the MeOH extract also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity in the same experimental model. Moreover, the labdane-type diterpenes and some of the prenylated phenolic compounds possessed antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori.

PMID: 11292234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Feb;74(2):105-12.

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Phenolic compounds from Brazilian propolis with pharmacological activities.

Marcucci MC, Ferreres F, Garcia-Viguera C, Bankova VS, De Castro SL, Dantas AP, Valente PH, Paulino N.

Laboratorio de Fitoquimica, CEBAS (CSIC) Apdo Correos 4195, 30080, Murcia, Spain.

Four compounds were isolated from Brazilian propolis. They are identified as: (1) 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (PHCA), (2) 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyrane (DCBEN), (3) 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), and (4) 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DPB).
The structures of the compounds were determined by MS and NMR techniques. All compounds were assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi and the bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Compounds (1) to (4) were active against T. cruzi. Except (1), all compounds presented activity against the bacteria tested. When compounds (1)-(3) were tested in the guinea pig isolated trachea, all induced a relaxant effect similar to propolis extract.

PMID: 11167028 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2000 Sep-Oct;55(9-10):790-3.

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Propolis from the Mediterranean region: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

Velikova M, Bankova V, Sorkun K, Houcine S, Tsvetkova I, Kujumgiev A.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

The chemical composition of propolis from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece and Algeria was investigated by GC-MS. All of them contained mainly flavonoids and esters of caffeic and ferulic acids, which indicated that their main source are buds of poplars of the taxonomic section Aegieros. Some Turkish samples contained a low percent of diterpenic acids, while in Algerian samples significant amounts of a hydroxyditerpenic acid (M=322, its structure not determined by its MS) were found. All samples showed significant antibacterial and weak to moderate antifungal activity.

PMID: 11098832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):693-6.

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Antibacterial ent-kaurene from Brazilian propolis of native stingless bees.

Velikova M, Bankova V, Tsvetkova I, Kujumgiev A, Marcucci MC.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Three ent-kaurene diterpenoids, not previously described as constituents of propolis, were isolated from a sample collected by Brazilian native bees Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. One of them, kaurenoic acid, as well as the total extract, displayed moderate antibacterial activity.

PMID: 11077178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Oct;6(5):383-9.

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Detection of antimicrobials in bee products with activity against viridans streptococci.

Tichy J, Novak J.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Bee products have been studied extensively for their healing properties and have become part of cosmetic preparations and folk medicine. The major objective of this study was to examine the presence of antimicrobials in various bee products. DESIGN: Propolis, honeycomb lids, pollen, honeycombs, and honey were screened for antimicrobial compounds. Viridans streptococci were used as indicator strains. Ethanol extracts were applied onto paper disks, dried, and put on the surface of nutrient agar plates with the overlay containing viridans streptococci. The plates were then incubated and evaluated the next day for the presence of inhibition zones. The size of the inhibition zone represented a quantitative measure of antimicrobial activity in a sample. Thin-layer chromatography was used for separation of compounds in the samples and biodetection-an overlay with indicator strain-identified the antimicrobial compounds by formation of inhibition zones. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts of propolis and honeycomb lids, as well as honey containing honeycomb lids contained a mixture of antimicrobial compounds in various amounts. Thin-layer chromatography experiments with two different solvent systems differing in polarity suggested that major antimicrobials present in the samples prepared from honeycomb lids, honeycombs, pollen, and propolis have similar properties. These active compounds were not extremely hydrophobic. CONCLUSIONS: Extracts from the tested samples of bee products exhibited antimicrobial properties at various levels depending on the sample and bacterial species used for testing. Using chromatographic techniques, we demonstrated similar properties of the active compounds in various active samples. In conclusion, our results suggest that honey containing honeycomb lids may be a beneficial food supplement because of the presence of antibacterial compounds.

PMID: 11059500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):243-9.

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Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity.

Sforcin JM, Fernandes A Jr, Lopes CA, Bankova V, Funari SR.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, 18618-000, SP, Botucatu, Brazil.

The behavior of microorganisms towards the antibiotic action of propolis has been widely investigated. Since reports dealing with seasonal effect on propolis activity are not available, this assay was carried out aiming to observe the in vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis, collected during the four seasons, on bacterial strains isolated from human infections. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) in agar was the method performed, with serial concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 14.0% (% v/v). The behavior of some bacteria was analysed according to the incubation period in medium plus propolis, and the survival curve was plotted. It was verified that the growth of Gram-positive bacteria is inhibited by low propolis concentrations (0.4%) whereas Gram-negative bacteria were less susceptible to this substance, the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 4.5 to 8.0%. There was no significant difference with regards to the seasonal effect on the survival curve of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli; after incubation with propolis, there was an efficient antimicrobial action, mainly towards Gram-positive bacteria.

PMID: 11025162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Zentralbl Chir. 2000;125 Suppl 1:84-6.

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[From the history of wound care]

[Article in German]

Benedum J.

Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Giessen.

Wound care in ancient times was based on many techniques: Bandages soaked with antibiotics, Sutures continuous or in separate stitches, apply of poultices around the wounds, honey and propolis as antibiotics in the treatment of wounds, surgical drainage of pus with a piece of tin pipe etc. The oldest wound clamp is shown with the jaws of ants holding together the edges of a wound. Finally are discussed the cauterization and the principles of Antisepsis and Asepsis.

Publication Types:

       Historical Article

PMID: 10929654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2000 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):70-5.

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Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of European propolis.

Hegazi AG, Abd El Hady FK, Abd Allah FA.

Department of Parasitology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Three propolis samples from Austria, Germany and France were investigated by GC/MS, where eleven compounds were being new for propolis. The samples showed some similarities in their qualitative composition. Phenylethyl-trans-caffeate, benzyl ferulate and galangin were predominant in German propolis. Benzyl caffeate was predominant in French sample. Pinocembrin was predominant in French and Austrian propolis and trans-p-coumaric acid was predominant in all samples. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans was evaluated. German propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. While Austrian propolis has the highest activity against Candida albicans. French propolis was effective against all pathogens but less than German and Austrian propolis.

PMID: 10739103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Arch Oral Biol. 2000 Feb;45(2):141-8.

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica montana against oral pathogens.

Koo H, Gomes BP, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Park YK, Cury JA.

School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Canipinas, Areiao, S.P., Brazil.

Arnica and propolis have been used for thousands of years in folk medicine for several purposes. They possess several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and tissue regenerative, among others. Although the antibacterial activity of propolis has already been demonstrated, very few studies have been done on bacteria of clinical relevance in dentistry. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Arnica has not been extensively investigated. Therefore the aim here was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity, inhibition of adherence of mutans streptococci and inhibition of formation of water-insoluble glucan by Arnica and propolis extracts. Arnica montana (10%, w/v) and propolis (10%, w/v) extracts from Minas Gerais State were compared with controls. Fifteen microorganisms were used as follows: Candida albicans--NTCC 3736, F72; Staphylococcus aureus--ATCC 25923; Enterococcus faecalis--ATCC 29212; Streptococcus sobrinus 6715; Strep. sanguis--ATCC 10556; Strep. cricetus--HS-6; Strep. mutans--Ingbritt 1600; Strep. mutans--OMZ 175; Actinomyces naeslundii--ATCC 12104, W 1053; Act. viscosus OMZ 105; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Porph. endodontalis and Prevotella denticola (the last three were clinical isolates). Antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method and the zones of growth inhibition were measured. To assess cell adherence to a glass surface, the organisms were grown for 18 h at 37 degrees C in test-tubes at a 30 degree angle. To assay water-insoluble glucan formation, a mixture of crude glucosyltransferase and 0.125 M sucrose was incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C in test-tubes at a 30 degree angle. Arnica and propolis extracts (20 microl) were added to these tubes to evaluate the % of inhibition of cell adherence and water-insoluble glucan formation. The propolis extract significantly inhibited all the microorganisms tested (p < 0.05), showing the largest inhibitory zone for Actinomyces spp. The Arnica extract did not demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity. Cell adherence and water-insoluble glucan formation were almost completely inhibited by the propolis extract at a final concentration of 400 microg/ml and 500 microg/ml, respectively. The Arnica extract showed slight inhibition of the adherence of the growing cells (19% for Strep. mutans and 15% for Strep. sobrinus) and of water-insoluble glucan formation (29%) at these same concentrations. Thus, the propolis extract showed in vitro antibacterial activity, inhibition of cell adherence and inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, while the Arnica extract was only slightly active in those three conditions.

PMID: 10716618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Ophthalmic Res. 2000 Jan-Feb;32(1):13-8.

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The effect of propolis extract in experimental chemical corneal injury.

Ozturk F, Kurt E, Cerci M, Emiroglu L, Inan U, Turker M, Ilker S.

Department of Ophthalmology, Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Manisa, Turkey.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of propolis, a natural resin produced by honeybees, in the treatment of alkali-injured rabbit eyes. METHOD: A corneal alkali burn was induced by applying filter paper immersed in 1 N NaOH on the central axis of the right corneas of 24 rabbits for 30 s. The animals were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (control) was given 0.3% tobramycin and phosphate-buffered solution; group 2 was treated with antibiotic coverage and topical 1% ethanolic extract of propolis; group 3 received antibiotic coverage and topical 1% dexamethasone. The dexamethasone-treated group was maintained as the positive control. Drugs were instilled 4 times a day for 7 days. The corneal inflammation was evaluated by calculating the average inflammatory index obtained from clinical observation of the ciliary hyperemia, central and peripheral corneal edema at 24 h, 48 h, on day 5 and day 7, before sacrificing the animals. Then, the corneas underwent routine histological examination. RESULTS: The effects of dexamethasone and propolis on healing of injured corneas were similar (p>0.05) and significantly better than controls at 24 h (p<0.01, p< 0.05, respectively), and on day 7 (p<0.05) with respect to the inflammatory index. On histological observation, inflammatory cell infiltration was lower as compared to control in both the dexamethasone and propolis groups (p<0.001) and similar with each other (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that propolis has an anti-inflammatory effect comparable to dexamethasone in chemical corneal injury. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 10657750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec 15;68(1-3):97-102.

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Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucuman, Argentina) propolis.

Nieva Moreno MI, Isla MI, Cudmani NG, Vattuone MA, Sampietro AR.

Catedra de Fitoquimica, Instituto de Estudios Vegetales, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina.

Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucuman and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaquena). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

PMID: 10624867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1999 Jul-Aug;54(7-8):549-53.

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Synergism between ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and anti-tuberculosis drugs on growth of mycobacteria.

Scheller S, Dworniczak S, Waldemar-Klimmek K, Rajca M, Tomczyk A, Shani J.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Silesian Academy of Medicine, Zabrze-Rokitnica, Poland.

Ethanolic extract of propolis exerts a strong anti-bacterial activity, in addition to antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal properties. In previous studies from these laboratories we have demonstrated that the intensity of the bactericidal activity of EEP is correlated with the virulence of the mycobacteria tested, and that EEP has a synergistic effect with antibiotics on growth of staphylococcus aureus. In the present study we investigated whether the same synergism and correlation exists between EEP and some anti-tuberculosis drugs on tuberculosis mycobacteria with different degrees of virulence. Six standard strains and 11 wild strains of mycobacteria were exposed for 30 days to EEP, with or without streptomycin, rifamycin, isoniazid or ethambutol. Out of the 17 strains, 8 were resistant to at least two standard antibiotics, and were considered "multi-resistant strains". The rest were either susceptible or resistant to only one of the antimycobacterial drugs. Antagonism was recorded only in one case, when Staphylococcus aureus were treated with a mixture of EEP and ethambutol, suggesting that a chemical bond could have been formed between this anti-tuberculosis antibiotic and one of the active components of the ethanol extract of propolis.

PMID: 10488563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1999 May-Jun;54(5-6):401-5.

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Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from Sao Paulo state.

Bankova V, Boudourova-Krasteva G, Sforcin JM, Frete X, Kujumgiev A, Maimoni-Rodella R, Popov S.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. IOCHNP@BGCICT.ACAD.BG

Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in Sao Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate.

PMID: 10431391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: J Nat Prod. 1999 Jul;62(7):1013-5.

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A polyisoprenylated benzophenone from Cuban propolis.

Rubio OC, Cuellar Cuellar A, Rojas N, Castro HV, Rastrelli L, Aquino R.

Institute for Pharmacy and Food (IFAL), University of Havana, Ave. 23, 21425, Lisa, C. Habana, Cuba.

A novel polyisoprenylated benzophenone (1) has been isolated from an ethanol extract of Cuban propolis. Its structure has been determined using high-field 2D NMR techniques. Compound 1 showed significant antimicrobial and antifungal activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts.

PMID: 10425129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Int J Mol Med. 1999 Jul;4(1):29-32.

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Apoptosis induced by propolis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

Choi YH, Lee WY, Nam SY, Choi KC, Park YE.

Department of Pathology, Chun-Chon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University, Chun-Chon city, Kang Won-Do 200-060, Korea.

Propolis has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities including antibiotic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and tumor carcinostatic properties. We showed propolis induced apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SNU449) by FITC-Annexin V/PI staining. We also compared the apoptosis inducing effect between Korean and Commercial (Sigma # p-1010) propolis. There was no difference on apoptosis between them.

PMID: 10373633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Mar;64(3):235-40.

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Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin.

Kujumgiev A, Tsvetkova I, Serkedjieva Y, Bankova V, Christov R, Popov S.

Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

Propolis samples from different geographic origins were investigated for their antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), antifungal (against Candida albicans) and antiviral (against Avian influenza virus) activities. All samples were active against the fungal and Gram-positive bacterial test strains, and most showed antiviral activity. The activities of all samples were similar in spite of the differences in their chemical composition. In samples from the temperate zone, flavonoids and esters of phenolic acids are known to be responsible for the above mentioned activities of bee glue; tropical samples did not contain such substances but showed similar activities. Obviously, in different samples, different substance combinations are essential for the biological activity of the bee glue. It seems that propolis has general pharmacological value as a natural mixture and not as a source of new powerful antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral compounds.

PMID: 10363838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Apr;36(4):347-63.

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Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis).

Burdock GA.

Burdock and Associates, Vero Beach, FL 32963, USA.

Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Use of propolis by humans has a long history, predated only by the discovery of honey. Use of products containing propolis have resulted in extensive dermal contact and it is now increasingly being used a dietary supplement. Unlike many 'natural' remedies, there is a substantive database on the biological activity and toxicity of propolis indicating it may have many antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and antitumour properties, among other attributes. Although reports of allergic reactions are not uncommon, propolis is relatively non-toxic, with a no-effect level (NOEL) in a 90-mouse study of 1400 mg/kg body weight/day.

Publication Types:


PMID: 9651052 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Curr Microbiol. 1998 Jan;36(1):24-8.

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Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms.

Park YK, Koo MH, Abreu JA, Ikegaki M, Cury JA, Rosalen PL.

College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 13081-970, Caixa Postal 6177, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Formation of dental caries is caused by the colonization and accumulation of oral microorganisms and extracellular polysaccharides that are synthesized from sucrose by glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans. The production of glucosyltransferase from oral microorganisms was attempted, and it was found that Streptococcus mutans produced highest activity of the enzyme. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were examined whether EEP inhibit the enzyme activity and growth of the bacteria or not. All EEP from various regions in Brazil inhibited both glucosyltransferase activity and growth of S. mutans, but one of the propolis from Rio Grande do Sul (RS2) demonstrated the highest inhibition of the enzyme activity and growth of the bacteria. It was also found that propolis (RS2) contained the highest concentrations of pinocembrin and galangin.

PMID: 9405742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51: Microbiol Res. 1997 Sep;152(3):239-46.

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Antimicrobial action of propolis and some of its components: the effects on growth, membrane potential and motility of bacteria.

Mirzoeva OK, Grishanin RN, Calder PC.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

The effect of the natural bee product propolis on the physiology of microorganisms was investigated using B. subtilis, E. coli and R. sphaeroides. An ethanolic extract of propolis had a bactericidal effect caused by the presence of very active, but labile, ingredients. The exact bactericidal effect of propolis was species dependent: it was effective against gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria. Propolis and some of its cinnamic and flavonoid components were found to uncouple the energy transducing cytoplasmic membrane and to inhibit bacterial motility. These effects on the bioenergetic status of the membrane may contribute to the antimicrobial action of propolis and its observed synergism with selected antibiotics.

PMID: 9352659 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1996 May-Jun;51(5-6):277-80.

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Antibacterial diterpenic acids from Brazilian propolis.

Bankova V, Marcucci MC, Simova S, Nikolova N, Kujumgiev A, Popov S.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Four labdane-type diterpenic acids and syringaldehyde were isolated and identified from Brazilian propolis. All the compounds exhibit antibacterial activity. The diterpenes, found for the first time in propolis, are typical for some Araucaria species and thus indicate a possible plant source of Brazilian propolis.

PMID: 8663896 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1995 Mar-Apr;50(3-4):167-72.

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Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis.

Bankova V, Christov R, Kujumgiev A, Marcucci MC, Popov S.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

Four samples of Brazilian propolis were investigated by GC/MS of different fractions. 32 volatile compounds, (10 of them new for propolis), as well as 12 more polar compounds (one of them new for propolis) were identified. Antibacterial activity was found in some propolis fractions.

PMID: 7766255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: Planta Med. 1994 Jun;60(3):222-7.

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Electron microscopic and microcalorimetric investigations of the possible mechanism of the antibacterial action of a defined propolis provenance.

Takaisi-Kikuni NB, Schilcher H.

Department de Microbiologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Kinshasa, Zaire.

Microcalorimetric and electron microscopic studies on the mode of the antibacterial action of propolis were performed on Streptococcus agalactiae. It was shown that propolis inhibits bacterial growth by preventing cell division, thus resulting in the formation of pseudo-multicellular streptococci. In addition, propolis disorganized the cytoplasm, the cytoplasmic membrane, and the cell wall, caused a partial bacteriolysis, and inhibited protein synthesis. It was evident that the mechanism of action of propolis on bacterial cells is complex and a simple analogy cannot be made to the mode of action of any classic antibiotics.

PMID: 8073087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1994 Jan-Feb;49(1-2):39-43.

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Biochemical activities of propolis-extracts. III. Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase.

Strehl E, Volpert R, Elstner EF.

Institut fur Botanik und Mikrobiologie, Biochemisches Labor, Technische Universitat Munchen.

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the natural compound PROPOLIS indicate substantial antiinflammatory functions as well as antibiotic activities in vitro and in vivo. The exact mode of physiological or biochemical mechanisms responsible for the medical effects, however, is all but clear. The standardization on the basis of quantitative determination of prominent components of these extracts have been substituted recently by simple biochemical model reactions including photodynamic properties. In this communication we report on the inhibitory activity of an aqueous extract of propolis on the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. This activity may at least partially be due to the content of caffeic acid, as revealed by HPLC chromatography and comparative activity tests of representative ingredients of the propolis extract. This result may explain some of the protective functions of propolis, similar to those shown for several "non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs", NSAIDs.

PMID: 8148008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Pharmazie. 1993 Oct;48(10):785-6.

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Antibacterial activity of propolis, some of its components and their analogs.

Kujumgiev A, Bankova V, Ignatova A, Popov S.

Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

PMID: 8265716 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Aug;43(8):921-3.

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Bactericidal effect of propolis in vitro against agents causing upper respiratory tract infections.

Focht J, Hansen SH, Nielsen JV, van den Berg-Segers A, Riezler R.

Bioscientia, Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Moers, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

Propolis is a natural product of bees which exhibits an antimicrobial effect. In the study the existence of a bactericidal effect against several strains isolated from patients with infections in their upper respiratory tracts is demonstrated. In light of the use of propolis as a therapeutic agent in natural medicine for common colds and inflammatory processes this effect is discussed.

PMID: 8216454 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 May;43(5):607-9.

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Synergistic effect of ethanolic extract of propolis and antibiotics on the growth of staphylococcus aureus.

Krol W, Scheller S, Shani J, Pietsz G, Czuba Z.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Silesian School of Medicine, Zabrze-Rokitnica, Poland.

Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP), known to possess marked antibacterial activity, was incubated with 8 different common antibiotics in culture medium containing a fixed amount of a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The antibiotic compounds used were: penicillin G, doxycycline, streptomycin, cloxacillin, chloramphenicol, cefradine, ampicillin and polymyxin B. They were used in varying levels, ranging between 0.000005-125.0 micrograms/ml or units, resp. Firstly, their minimal inhibitory concentrations were established in the absence of EEP, than EEP was added in concentrations up to 600 micrograms/ml. EEP had a marked synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity of streptomycin and cloxacillin, and a moderate synergistic effect on the others, except ampicillin.

PMID: 8329008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Chem Biol Interact. 1992 Nov 16;84(3):277-90.

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Effect of caffeic acid esters on carcinogen-induced mutagenicity and human colon adenocarcinoma cell growth.

Rao CV, Desai D, Kaul B, Amin S, Reddy BS.

Division of Nutritional Carcinogenesis, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York.

Propolis, a honey bee hive product, is thought to exhibit a broad spectrum of activities including antibiotic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and tumor growth inhibition; some of the observed biological activities may be due to caffeic acid (cinnamic acid) esters that are present in propolis. In the present study we synthesized three caffeic acid esters, namely methyl caffeate (MC), phenylethyl caffeate (PEC) and phenylethyl dimethylcaffeate (PEDMC) and tested them against the 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl, (DMAB, a colon and mammary carcinogen)-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Also, the effect of these agents on the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma, HT-29 cells and activities of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) was studied. Mutagenicity was induced in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 plus S9 activation using 5 and 10 micrograms DMAB and antimutagenic activities of 0-150 microM MC, 0-60 microM PEC and 0-80 microM PEDMC were determined. The results indicate that MC, PEC and PEDMC were not mutagenic in the Salmonella tester system. DMAB-induced mutagenicity was significantly inhibited with 150 microM MC, 40-60 microM PEC and 40-80 microM PEDMC in both tester systems. Treatment of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells with > 150 microM MC, 30 microM PEC and 20 microM PEDMC significantly inhibited the cell growth and syntheses of RNA, DNA and protein. ODC and PTK activities were also inhibited in HT-29 cells treated with different concentrations of MC, PEC and PEDMC. These results demonstrate that caffeic acid esters which are present in Propolis possess chemopreventive properties when tested in short-term assay systems.

PMID: 1423745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Oct;35(1):77-82.

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Antibacterial, antifungal, antiamoebic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic studies on propolis bee products.

Dobrowolski JW, Vohora SB, Sharma K, Shah SA, Naqvi SA, Dandiya PC.

Institute of Management and Protection of Environment, Krakow, Poland.

PMID: 1753797 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Aug;16(8):481-2, 512.

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[Isolation and identification of antibiotic constituents of propolis from Henan]

[Article in Chinese]

Qiao Z, Chen R.

College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shangha.

Sinapic acid, isoferulic acid, caffeic acid and chrysin were isolated from the alcoholic extraction of propolis and identified by spectrometric methods. The first three compounds were shown with inhibitive effect of against Staphylococcus aureus, while chrysin was ineffective.

PMID: 1804186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: J R Soc Med. 1990 Mar;83(3):159-60.

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Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue).

Grange JM, Davey RW.

Department of Microbiology, National Heart & Lung Institute, London.

Propolis (bee glue) was found to have antibacterial activity against a range of commonly encountered cocci and Gram-positive rods, including the human tubercle bacillus, but only limited activity against Gram-negative bacilli. These findings confirm previous reports of antimicrobial properties of this material, possibly attributable to its high flavonoid content.

Publication Types:


PMID: 2182860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Microbios. 1990;62(250):19-22.

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Antibiotic activity of natural products: 1. Propolis.

Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM, Franklin I.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Royal Free Hospital, Hampstead, London, Great Britain.

Material extracted from propolis (bee glue) by alkaline aqueous solvents or organic solvents showed weak inhibitory activity in vitro against certain species of Gram-positive bacteria. No antimicrobial activity was detected in urine from three volunteers who had taken 500 mg propolis three times a day for 3 days.

PMID: 2110610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Przegl Dermatol. 1985 May-Jun;72(3):253-6.

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[Role of allergens causing skin lesions in humans in the development of allergy in dogs. IV. Contact allergens]

[Article in Polish]

Pomorski Z, Rudzki E.

PMID: 4081070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Vestn Otorinolaringol. 1983 Nov-Dec;(6):47-50.

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[Combined effect of propolis and different antibiotics on Staphylococci]

[Article in Russian]

Sytnik IA, Kovalik PV.

PMID: 6659261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Minerva Med. 1983 Sep 15;74(35):2029-32.

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[Bacteriological and clinical notes on otitis externa in saturation. Double-blind study on the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic preparations]

[Article in Italian]

Marroni A, Arduini R, Conti S.

Microbiological analysis of the variation in the bacterial flora of the external auditory canal was carried out during 39 immersion in saturated solutions. A double blind test on the usefulness of prophylactic and therapeutic preparations was also carried out. Prophylactics. - 5% Al acetate in H2O (P1), Boric alcohol (P2), lactic acid in H2O (P3, Domeboro (P4), no prophylactic (P0). After the immersions, a significant increase in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Candida Albicans (p less than 0,01) was noted in the auricular bacterial flora. Gram positive bacteria in general were considerably reduced (p less than 0,01). Gram negative bacteria other than pseudomonas. A (p less than 0,3) and coagulase negative straphylococci (p less than 0,03) did not vary significantly. Prophylactic preparations P1 and P2 were shown to be significantly more effective than P3, P4 and P0 in preventing the symptomatology (p less than 0,01). The most effective therapeutic preparation was found to be a locally applied gentamycinpolymixin association.

Publication Types:

       Clinical Trial

PMID: 6412179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: Stomatol Vjesn. 1983;12(3-4):139-42.

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[Scientific findings on propolis and its application in medicine]

[Article in Croatian]

Hajdaragic-Ibricevic H.

PMID: 6592856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Pharmazie. 1982 Dec;37(12):864-5.

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Growth inhibition of bacillus subtilis and composition of various propolis extracts.

Pepeljnjak S, Jalsenjak I, Maysinger D.

The composition of 31 samples of propolis extract was investigated by using TLC. Ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) prepared from the various propolis samples differ mainly in quantities of identified compounds, and not in kind of components present. According to the inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis, the propolis samples were grouped in three categories. It appears that the galangin content in a sample is a main constituent, which determines its antibacterial activity.

PMID: 6819589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Antibiotiki. 1981 Apr;26(4):268-71.

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[Effect of propolis on Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to antibiotics]

[Article in Russian]

Shub TA, Kagramanova KA, Voropaeva SD, Kivman GIa.

The activity of propolis and its combinations with antibiotics against antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus was studied. It was found that staphylococcae strains resistant to benzylpenicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin were mainly sensitive to propolis. It is concluded that there was synergism in the effect of propolis and antibiotics with respect to antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

PMID: 7235666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Cesk Stomatol. 1980 Jul;80(4):304-7.

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[Antibacterial properties of propolis]

[Article in Slovak]

Madarova L.

PMID: 6931664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1980 Jun;59(3):61.

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[Stomapin in the overall treatment of parodontosis and oral mucosal diseases]

[Article in Russian]

Metrik AZ.

PMID: 6930731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Pharmazie. 1979;34(2):103-6.

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[Identification of an antimicrobially active constituent isolated from propolis (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Schneidewind EM, Buge A, Kala H, Metzner J, Zschunke A.

On isolating and identifying antimicrobially active propolis constituents, the authors detected a substance that must be regarded as a mixture of caffeic acid esters. The caffeic acid moiety was unequivocally identified by various chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results obtained from the gas chromatographic study of the alcohol fraction after hydrolysis of the isolated compound identify benzyl alcohol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and cinnamic alcohol as ester components. Furthermore, the mass spectroscopic findings are indicative of the presence of a caffeic acid pentenyl ester in the mixture. Attempts to separate this ester mixture by recrystallization and thin-layer chromatography failed.

PMID: 441103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Stomatologiia (Sofiia). 1979 Jan-Feb;61(1):18-22.

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[Clinical results of the treatment of parodontosis with propolis and lincomycin]

[Article in Bulgarian]

Goranov K, Zarankova V, Velcheva M.

PMID: 299294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Pharmazie. 1979;34(2):97-102.

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[On the antimicrobial activity of propolis and propolis constituents (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Metzner J, Bekemeier H, Paintz M, Schneidewind E.

After a survey of the literature on the antimicrobial activity of the bee product propolis, the authors discuss their own findings as compared to the chemotherapeutical agents streptomycin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, nystatin, griseofulvin and sulphamerazine. According to the results obtained by testing 25 isolated constituents on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the antimicrobial properties of this mixture of natural substances are mainly attributable to the flavonoids pinocembrin, galangin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin-3-acetate as well as to the p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and a caffeic acid ester mixture. None of the isolated substances was as potent as the antibiotics tested for the purpose of comparison. The relatively good antimycetic activity of the 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone pinocembrin seems noteworthy. Finally, possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial action of the flavonoids are discussed.

PMID: 108687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Mykosen. 1978 Aug;21(8):257-62.

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[Effect of pinocembrin on the course of experimental candida infections in mice]

[Article in German]

Metzner J, Schneidewind EM.

Pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxy-flavanon)--a component of the bee product propolis--was tested for its in vivo activity against Candida albicans in mice. It was shown that the intravenous infection of AB-Jena mice with 2.5 X 10(5) Candida albicans cells was a very suitable model. Despite of treatment with pinocembrin at daily doses of 100 mg/kg body weight the animals as well as the controls died between the 6th and 24th day after beginning. On the other hand the animals treated with 5 mg/kg amphotericin B survived the test-period of 30 days. The question of effectiveness of pinocembrin in vivo should be cleared up in further pharmacokinetic investigations.

PMID: 692545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: Nord Vet Med. 1977 Oct;29(10):446-51.

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A new selective medium for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes.

Gronstol H, Aspoy E.

A new selective medium for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), is described. The medium contained propolis, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B and rivanol as selective substances. The new medium (propolis-agar) was compared with two other selective media and one nonselective medium. No inhibitory effect was found on the 6 strains of Lm tested, and Lm was easily isolated from a mixture of Lm and contaminating bacteria. The selective effect was better than for the two other selective media tested.

PMID: 411112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Nord Vet Med. 1977 Oct;29(10):440-5.

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[Selective effect of propolis in the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes (author's transl)]

[Article in Norwegian]

Aspoy E.

Propolis is a substance produced by honeybees. It is inhibitory to some bacteria species, mainly Gram-positive bacteria, but less inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes (L.m) than to the other Gram-positive bacteria tested. In order to obtain selective growth of L.m. from contaminated samples, the effect of propolis in plating media and broths on various strains of bacteria was examined. Table I shows the effect of increasing concentrations of propolis in tryptose-agar (TA). L.m. tolerated higher concentrations of propolis than Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus. L.m. grew well in tryptosebroth (TB) that contained 0.15 mg propolis pr. ml medium, while Streptococcus viridans and Streptococcus agalactiae were completely inhibited as seen in Table II. Table III shows that when serum was added to the agar, the inhibitory effect was reduced. It can also be seen that Gram-negative bacteria grew quite well on media that contained 0.19 mg propolis pr. ml. To reduce the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, nalidixic acid was added to the medium. Table IV illustrates growth of various species of bacteria in tryptosephosphatebroth (TFB) with or without propolis and nalidixic acid. Most of the strains tested were inhibited, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to some extent faecal streptococci were able to grow in the medium that contained the selective substances. As a conclusion it seems that propolis may be a valuable additive to a medium for the selective isolation of L.m.

PMID: 411111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Zh Ushn Nos Gorl Bolezn. 1977 Jul-Aug;(4):82-3.

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[Bacterial flora and its sensitivity to propolis and antibiotics in acute and chronic highmoritis]

[Article in Russian]

Kovalik PV.

PMID: 930362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Arzneimittelforschung. 1977 Jul;27(7):1395.

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Biological properties and clinical application of propolis. III. Investigation of the sensitivity of Staphylococci isolated from pathological cases to ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). Attempts on inducing resistance in laboratory Staphylococcus strain to EEP.

Scheller S, Tustanowski J, Kurylo B, Paradowski Z, Obuszko Z.

Staphylococci isolated from pathological material exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) in 90% of cases. No cross-resistance of the staphylococci to EEP and to any commonly used antibiotics was found. The induction of resistance to EEP in laboratory strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Oxford 209 P) can be achieved already after serial passages on nutrient media containing EEP. Culturing Staphylococcus resistant to EEP in an environment devoid of this compound caused a remission to sensitivity of the strain investigated.

PMID: 578459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Antibiotiki. 1976 May;21(5):422-3.

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[Fractionation of the mixture of volatile with steam components of propolis and the study of their antimicrobial activity]

[Article in Russian]

Kivalkina VP, Rybkina NI, Barskov AA, Geras'kin IM, Talan VA.

PMID: 828845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Pharmazie. 1975 Dec;30(12):799-800.

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[Bioautographic detection of the antimicrobial active constituents of propolis]

[Article in German]

Metzner J, Bekemeier H, Schneidewind E, Schwaiberger R.

PMID: 815918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Dermatol Monatsschr. 1973 Apr;159(4):443-9.

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[Microbiological, pharmacological and clinical studies on the efficiency of propolis]

[Article in German]

Bekemeier H, Braun W, Friedrich E, Kala H, Metzner J, Schneidewind E, Schwaiberger R, Wozniak KD.

PMID: 4726636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Antibiotiki. 1973 Mar;18(3):261-3.

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[Study of combined effect of antibiotics and propolis]

[Article in Russian]

Kivalkina VP, Gosrshumova VI.

PMID: 4587465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: Antibiotiki. 1973 Mar;18(3):259-61.

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[Synergistic effects of propolis and some antibacterial agents]

[Article in Russian]

Cherniak NF.

PMID: 4587464 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]