PROPOLEOS Y CARIES

 

 

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1: Arch Oral Biol. 2006 Jan;51(1):15-22. Epub 2005 Jul 28.

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The influence of a novel propolis on mutans streptococci biofilms and caries development in rats.

Duarte S, Rosalen PL, Hayacibara MF, Cury JA, Bowen WH, Marquis RE, Rehder VL, Sartoratto A, Ikegaki M, Koo H.

Eastman Department of Dentistry and Center for Oral Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14620, USA. simone_duarte@urmc.rochester.edu

A flavonoids-free Brazilian propolis (type 6) showed biological effects against mutans streptococci and inhibited the activity of glucosyltransferases. This study evaluated the influence of the ethanolic extract of a novel type of propolis (EEP) and its purified hexane fraction (EEH) on mutans streptococci biofilms and the development of dental caries in rats. The chemical composition of the propolis extracts were examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The effects of EEP and EEH on Streptococcus mutans UA159 and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 biofilms were analysed by time-kill and glycolytic pH drop assays. Their influence on proton-translocating F-ATPase activity was also tested. In the animal study, the rats were infected with S. sobrinus 6715 and fed with cariogenic diet 2000. The rats were treated topically twice a day with each of the extracts (or control) for 5 weeks. After the experimental period, the microbial composition of their dental plaque and their caries scores were determined. The results showed that fatty acids (oleic, palmitic, linoleic and stearic) were the main compounds identified in EEP and EEH. These extracts did not show major effects on the viability of mutans streptococci biofilms. However, EEP and EEH significantly reduced acid production by the biofilms and also inhibited the activity of F-ATPase (60-65%). Furthermore, both extracts significantly reduced the incidence of smooth surface caries in vivo without displaying a reduction of the percentage of S. sobriuns in the animals' plaque (P < 0.05). However, only EEH was able to reduce the incidence and severity of sulcal surface caries (P < 0.05). The data suggest that the cariostatic properties of propolis type 6 are related to its effect on acid production and acid tolerance of cariogenic streptococci; the biological activities may be attributed to its high content of fatty acids.

PMID: 16054589 [PubMed - in process]


2: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):110-5.

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In vitro and in vivo effects of isolated fractions of Brazilian propolis on caries development.

Hayacibara MF, Koo H, Rosalen PL, Duarte S, Franco EM, Bowen WH, Ikegaki M, Cury JA.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Dentistry Faculty of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, Av. Limeira, 901 PIRACICABA-SP, CEP: 13414-903, Brazil. mhayacibara@wnet.com.br

Recently, two chemically different types of Brazilian propolis (type-3 and -12) were shown to have cariostatic properties. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of their isolated fractions on mutans streptococci viability, glucosyltransferases (GTFs) activity and caries development in rats. The ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs) were serially fractionated into hexane (H-fr), chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The ability of the four fractions and EEP to inhibit Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus growth and adherence to a glass surface was examined. The effect on GTFs B and C activity was also determined. For the caries study, 60 Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus were treated topically twice daily as follows: (1) EEP type-3, (2) H-fr type-3, (3) EEP type-12, (4) H-fr type-12, and (5) control. In general, the H-fr from both types of propolis showed the highest antibacterial activity and GTFs inhibition. Furthermore, the EEP and H-fr type-3 and -12 were equally effective in reducing dental caries in rats. The data suggest that the putative cariostatic compounds of propolis type-3 and -12 are mostly non-polar; and H-fr should be the fraction of choice for identifying further potentially novel anti-caries agents.

PMID: 15913934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


3: Microbiol Res. 2005;160(2):189-95.

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Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples.

Uzel A, Sorkun K, Oncag O, Cogulu D, Gencay O, Salih B.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Basic and Industrial Microbiology Section, Bornova-Izmir 35100, Turkey. uzel@sci.ege.edu.tr

Propolis means a gum that is gathered by bees from various plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four different Anatolian propolis samples on different groups of microorganisms including some oral pathogens and comparison between their chemical compositions. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from four different Anatolian propolis samples and examined whether EEP inhibit the growth of the test microorganisms or not. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using macrodilution method. The MIC values of the most effective propolis (TB) were 2 microg/ml for Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, 4 microg/ml for Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans and C. krusei, 8 microg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter aerogenes, 16 microg/ml for Escherichia coli and C. tropicalis and 32 microg/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical compositions of EEP's were determined by high-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main compounds of four Anatolian propolis samples were flavonoids such as pinocembrin, pinostropin, isalpinin, pinobanksin, quercetin, naringenin, galangine and chrysin. Although propolis samples were collected from different regions of Anatolia all showed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria and yeasts. Propolis can prevent dental caries since it demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and C. albicans, which involves in oral diseases.

PMID: 15881836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


4: Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Nov;27(11):1834-9.

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Comparative evaluation of in-vitro effects of Brazilian green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia extracts on cariogenic factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Leitao DP, Filho AA, Polizello AC, Bastos JK, Spadaro AC.

Laboratorio de Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Streptococcus mutans triggers dental caries establishment by two major factors: synthesis of organic acids, which demineralize dental enamel, and synthesis of glucans, which mediate the attachment of bacteria to the tooth surface. Propolis is a natural product that may prevent dental caries. Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), a native plant from Brazil, is the most important botanical origin for the production of green propolis (Brazilian propolis) by honeybees. However, whether B. dracunculifolia (Bd) has an anticariogenic effect, like green propolis, remains unknown. Herein, we have made a comparative evaluation of the effects of extracts from green propolis and Bd on the glucan synthesis and acidogenic potential of S. mutans. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on bacterial acid production were evaluated through the potentiometric measurement of pH from bacterial suspensions treated with serial concentrations of both extracts. Besides presenting close inhibitory values at the same concentration range, Bd leaf rinse and green propolis extracts had similar IC(50) values (0.41 and 0.34 mg/ml, respectively). Both extracts produced a bacteriostatic effect on S. mutans cultures at a concentration of 0.40 mg/ml. Estimated inhibitory values of green propolis and Bd leaf rinse extracts on the synthesis of insoluble glucans (IC(50)=12.9 and 25.0 microg/ml, respectively) and soluble glucans (IC(50)=50.4 and 49.1 microg/ml, respectively) were not significantly different from each other at p<0.05. The results demonstrate that Bd leaf rinse and green propolis extracts have similar inhibitory effects on the S. mutans cariogenic factors evaluated herein, and allowed us to suggest that Bd leaves may be a potential source for pharmaceutical products employed for this purpose.

PMID: 15516733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


5: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Aug;21(4):304-6, 317.

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[Evaluation of the cario-static effect of Nidus vespae on biofilm model in vitro]

[Article in Chinese]

Huang Z, Li J, Zhou X.

Department of Oral Medicine, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Nidus vespae's cario-static effect on biofilm model in vitro. METHODS: A four-organism bacterial consortium was grown in a biofilm model on hydroxyapatite (HA) discs in a continuous culture system and exposed to repeated solution pulsing respectively. There were three parallel-connected flow cells in the model, so were the three groups with different solution pulsed in. Negative control group was pulsed with distilled water, positive control group was pulsed with 250 mmol/L sucrose solution as well. While 4.0 g/L Nidus vespae together with 250 mmol/L sucrose solution was pulsed in the experiment group. During the experiment, the pH responses against the pulses were recorded. After the 6 pulses, the biofilm surface structure was observed with a scan electron microscope and the population on the biofilm was enumerated. RESULTS: Nidus vespae can significantly inhibit the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to HA discs compared with the control group of 250 mmol/L sucrose pulsed in, and can facilitate the remove of acid products. It is also found that the extra-cellular polysaccharide is reduced with the pulsing of Nidus vespae. CONCLUSION: Nidus vespae in the biofilm model can partially decrease the cariogenic response of sucrose solution pulsed in.

PMID: 14513591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


6: Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Dec;17(6):337-43.

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Effects of apigenin and tt-farnesol on glucosyltransferase activity, biofilm viability and caries development in rats.

Koo H, Pearson SK, Scott-Anne K, Abranches J, Cury JA, Rosalen PL, Park YK, Marquis RE, Bowen WH.

Center for Oral Biology and Eastman Department of Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA.

Propolis, a resinous hive product secreted by Apis mellifera bees, has been shown to reduce the incidence of dental caries in rats. Several compounds, mainly polyphenolics, have been identified in propolis. Apigenin and tt-farnesol demonstrated biological activity against mutans streptococci. We determined here their effects, alone or in combination, on glucosyltransferase activity, biofilm viability, and development of caries in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and treated topically twice daily as follows: (1) tt-farnesol, (2) apigenin, (3) vehicle control, (4) fluoride, (5) apigenin +tt-farnesol, and (6) chlorhexidine. Apigenin (1.33 mM) inhibited the activity of glucosyltransferases in solution (90-95%) and on the surface of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (35-58%); it was devoid of antibacterial activity. tt-Farnesol (1.33 mM) showed modest antibacterial activity against biofilms and its effects on glucosyltransferases were minimal. The incidence of smooth-surface caries was significantly reduced by apigenin +tt-farnesol (60%), fluoride (70%), and chlorhexidine (72%) treatments compared to control (P < 0.05).

PMID: 12485324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


7: J Calif Dent Assoc. 2001 Dec;29(12):878, 877.

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Caries prevention that's the bees knees.

Horseman RE.

Publication Types:

       Editorial


PMID: 11813399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


8: Caries Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;33(5):393-400.

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Effect of Apis mellifera propolis from two Brazilian regions on caries development in desalivated rats.

Koo H, Rosalen PL, Cury JA, Park YK, Ikegaki M, Sattler A.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, Brazil.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Apis mellifera propolis collected from two regions of Brazil on caries development in desalivated rats. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from crude propolis samples collected in Minas Gerais state (MG), southeastern Brazil, and Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), southern Brazil. The flavonoid composition of EEP was analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the animal study, 30 specific pathogen-free Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and surgically desalivated. The rats were randomly divided into three groups which were treated with 80% ethanol (control), EEP from MG and EEP from RS. The animals were placed in a Konig-Hofer programmed feeder and received 17 meals of diet 2000 daily at hourly intervals. The solutions were applied on the rat molars (25 microl on molars of each quadrant) twice a day, by using graduate syringes. After 3 weeks, the animals were killed by CO(2) asphyxiation. For microbial assessment, the left jaw was removed and sonicated in 154 mM NaCl solution. Dental caries was evaluated according to Larson's modification of Keyes' system. The HPTLC patterns and HPLC profiles demonstrated that both quality and quantity of flavonoid aglycones of EEP from MG were different compared to EEP from RS. In general, it is apparent that EEP from RS contained the highest concentrations of pinocembrin, chrysin, acacetin and galangin. The group of animals treated with EEP from RS showed the lowest smooth-surface and sulcal caries scores as well as less caries severity in smooth-surface and sulcal lesions, and these data were statistically different when compared with the control group. The group treated with EEP from MG only demonstrated a significant difference in the severity of sulcal lesions when compared to the control group. The percentage of S. sobrinus was lower in the groups treated with EEP, but did not differ statistically from the control group. The results showed that the cariostatic effect of propolis depends on its composition, and consequently the region of collection of propolis samples.

PMID: 10460964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


9: Curr Microbiol. 1998 Jan;36(1):24-8.

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Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms.

Park YK, Koo MH, Abreu JA, Ikegaki M, Cury JA, Rosalen PL.

College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 13081-970, Caixa Postal 6177, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Formation of dental caries is caused by the colonization and accumulation of oral microorganisms and extracellular polysaccharides that are synthesized from sucrose by glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans. The production of glucosyltransferase from oral microorganisms was attempted, and it was found that Streptococcus mutans produced highest activity of the enzyme. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were examined whether EEP inhibit the enzyme activity and growth of the bacteria or not. All EEP from various regions in Brazil inhibited both glucosyltransferase activity and growth of S. mutans, but one of the propolis from Rio Grande do Sul (RS2) demonstrated the highest inhibition of the enzyme activity and growth of the bacteria. It was also found that propolis (RS2) contained the highest concentrations of pinocembrin and galangin.

PMID: 9405742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


10: Caries Res. 1991;25(5):347-51.

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Effects of propolis on dental caries in rats.

Ikeno K, Ikeno T, Miyazawa C.

Department of Oral Biochemistry, Ohu University School of Dentistry, Koriyama, Japan.

Propolis, the resinous hive product collected by bees, is important in the defense of the hive. The effects of propolis on growth and glucosyltransferase activity of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, Streptococcus mutans PS14 and Streptococcus cricetus OMZ61 in vitro, and on dental caries in rats infected with S. sobrinus 6715 were investigated. Propolis had antimicrobial activity against S. sobrinus, S. mutans and S. cricetus, and inhibited both water-insoluble glucan synthesis and glucosyltransferase activity. In rats inoculated with S. sobrinus, about half of their fissures were carious, while dental caries was significantly less (p = 0.01) in rats given propolis. Dental caries was markedly decreased by the multiple actions of propolis which had antimicrobial activity, inhibited water-insoluble glucan synthesis, and inhibited glucosyltransferase activity. No toxic effects of propolis on the growth of rats were observed under experimental conditions in this study. These results suggest that propolis can control dental caries in the rat model system.

PMID: 1836157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


11: Stomatol DDR. 1986 Apr;36(4):195-203.

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[Results of a twice-yearly controlled oral hygiene activity using a propolis-containing toothpaste (double-blind study)]

[Article in German]

Poppe B, Michaelis H.

Publication Types:

       Clinical Trial

       Controlled Clinical Trial


PMID: 3462998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


12: Stomatol Vjesn. 1986;15(3-4):149-52.

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[The effects of propolis on microflora of carious lesion]

[Article in Croatian]

Basic N, Basic F, Konjhodzic H.

PMID: 3506342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


13: Stomatologiia (Sofiia). 1969 Sep-Oct;51(5):394-7.

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[Experimenting with Propolis in the treatment of caries]

[Article in Bulgarian]

Vlaikov M.

PMID: 5267497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


14: Nauchni Tr Nauchnoizsled Stomatol Inst (Sofiia). 1969;13:47-51.

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[Personal experience with Propolis anesthesia in the treatment of eental caries]

[Article in Bulgarian]

Mostrova I, Baikusheva V.

PMID: 5274773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]