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1: Acta Pharm. 2005 Dec;55(4):423-30.

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Flavonoid analysis and antimicrobial activity of commercially available propolis products.

Kosalec I, Pepeljnjak S, Bakmaz M, Vladimir-Knezevic S.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Propolis ethanolic solutions are the most used propolis products on the market for the treatment of minor ulcers in the mouth, angina, thrush or skin infections. Since it is still an unofficial drug in pharmacy, we analyzed the contents of flavonoids in ten commercially available ethanolic solutions of propolis from the Croatian market using two complementary colorimetric methods. Antimicrobial activities, determined with the diffusion method, against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12204, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and one yeast-like fungus Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were compared. Results of flavonoids analysis suggested that the contents of flavones and flavonols in the products were uniform and ranged from 0.14 to 0.41%, but the content of flavanones varied greatly from 0.43 to 18.78%. Total flavonoid content, as the sum of two colorimetric methods, in propolis products was between 0.78 and 18.92%, and most products had the flavonoids content below 9%. All products with the total flavonoids content above 1% showed antimicrobial activity against the four Gram-positive bacterial species tested, and against P. aeruginosa and the yeast-like fungus C. albicans. Total flavonoids contents, expressed as the sum of two colorimetric methods, could be useful methods for estimating the flavonoid contents of propolis products. Our results indicate that the quality of commercially available propolis products requires verification.

PMID: 16375832 [PubMed - in process]

2: Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):652-4.

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Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract.

Santos VR, Pimenta FJ, Aguiar MC, do Carmo MA, Naves MD, Mesquita RA.

Department of Clinical Pathology and Surgery, Laboratory of Microbiology, Dentistry School, Minas Gerais Federal University, Campus da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, CEP 31.270-901.

The Brazilian commercial ethanol propolis extract, also formulated to ensure physical and chemical stability, was found to inhibit oral candidiasis in 12 denture-bearing patients with prosthesis stomatitis candidiasis association.

PMID: 16161031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Microbiol Res. 2005;160(2):189-95.

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Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples.

Uzel A, Sorkun K, Oncag O, Cogulu D, Gencay O, Salih B.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, Basic and Industrial Microbiology Section, Bornova-Izmir 35100, Turkey.

Propolis means a gum that is gathered by bees from various plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four different Anatolian propolis samples on different groups of microorganisms including some oral pathogens and comparison between their chemical compositions. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from four different Anatolian propolis samples and examined whether EEP inhibit the growth of the test microorganisms or not. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using macrodilution method. The MIC values of the most effective propolis (TB) were 2 microg/ml for Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, 4 microg/ml for Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans and C. krusei, 8 microg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter aerogenes, 16 microg/ml for Escherichia coli and C. tropicalis and 32 microg/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical compositions of EEP's were determined by high-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main compounds of four Anatolian propolis samples were flavonoids such as pinocembrin, pinostropin, isalpinin, pinobanksin, quercetin, naringenin, galangine and chrysin. Although propolis samples were collected from different regions of Anatolia all showed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria and yeasts. Propolis can prevent dental caries since it demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and C. albicans, which involves in oral diseases.

PMID: 15881836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 May 13;99(1):69-73.

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Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of propolis collected by three different races of honeybees in the same region.

Silici S, Kutluca S.

Erciyes University, S.Cikrikcioglu Vocational College, Department of Beekeeping, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey.

The chemical analysis and antibacterial activity of three types of propolis collected three different races of Apis mellifera bee in the same apiary were investigated. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS, 48 compounds were identified 32 being new for propolis. The compounds identified indicated that the main plant sources of propolis were Populus alba, Populus tremuloides and Salix alba. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was evaluated. Ethanolic extracts of propolis samples showed high antibacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus), but had a weak activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). Propolis sample collected by Apis mellifera caucasica showed a higher antibacterial activity than collected by Apis mellifera anatolica and Apis mellifera carnica.

PMID: 15848022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Mycoses. 2005 May;48(3):205-10.

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Comparison of in vitro activities of antifungal drugs and ethanolic extract of propolis against Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes by using a microdilution assay.

Koc AN, Silici S, Ayangil D, Ferahbas A, Cankaya S.

Medical Faculty, Department of Microbiology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

The in vitro activities of propolis against 29 strains of dermatophytes were compared with those of terbinafine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined according to a National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution method. Among the systemic antifungals tested, terbinafine was the most potent. Propolis showed important antifungal activity and it merits further investigation as a potentially useful agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

PMID: 15842339 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Mikrobiol Z. 2004 Nov-Dec;66(6):53-7.

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[Antimicrobial properties of bee preparations in ointment form]

[Article in Ukrainian]

Postoienko VO, Senchuhova NA, Postoienko OM, Patyka VP.

High antimicrobial activity apiphytopreparation in the form of the ointments containing pine turpentine, different concentration of propolis (from 4 to 20 %), honey and carotene oil from carrots (ointment N 4) has been. While testing by the method of diffusion in agar all the studied apiphytopreparation suppressed growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Micrococcus luteus, M. roseus. This effect increased with propolis content increase in the content of ointments. Bee honey and carotene oil intensified their antimicrobial activity. The latter was caused by the action of phenolic compounds, ether oils and other biologically active substances--the apiculture and vegetative raw material.

PMID: 15765871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003;1(1):29-35.

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Propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment.

Gebaraa EC, Pustiglioni AN, de Lima LA, Mayer MP.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subgingival irrigation with propolis extract by clinical and microbiological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis presenting three non-adjacent teeth with deep pockets were selected. After scaling and root planing, the selected periodontal sites were submitted to one of the following treatments: irrigation with a hydro alcoholic solution of propolis extract twice/week for two weeks (group A); irrigation with a placebo twice/week for two weeks (group B); or no additional treatment (C). Subgingival plaque sampling and scaling and root planing were performed two weeks after clinical data recording. Two weeks later irrigation procedures were started (Baseline). Microbiological and clinical data were collected at baseline, and after 4, 6 and 24 weeks. RESULTS: A decrease in total viable counts of anaerobic bacteria (p=0.007), an increase in the proportion of sites with low levels (< or = 10(3) cfu/mL) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.005), and a decrease in the number of sites with detectable presence of yeasts (p=0.000) were observed in group A sites when compared to group B and C sites. Propolis treatment did not lead to an increase in organisms such as coagulase positive Staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp. 24 weeks after treatment there was an increased proportion of sites showing probing depth (PD) < or = 3 mm in Group A sites. CONCLUSION: Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than conventional treatment both by clinical and microbiological parameters.

PMID: 15643746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Nahrung. 2004 Jun;48(3):188-94.

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Inhibitory effect of pollen and propolis extracts.

Ozcan M, Unver A, Ceylan DA, Yetisir R.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Bee pollen and propolis were collected from Apis mellifera colonies in five regions of Turkey. The antifungal properties of methanol extracts of pollen and propolis (2% and 5% concentrations) were determined on Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. melonis. The least active concentration towards the tested fungi was 2% concentration of both extracts. The inhibitory effect of all propolis extracts on growth of F. oxysporium and A. alternata were generally higher when compared with pollen extracts. The growth of A. alternata and F. oxysporium were not affected at both concentrations of pollens. However, F. oxysporium against propolis extracts was more sensitive than A. alternata (P < 0.01). None of the pollen extracts tested completely inhibited mycelial growth of fungi used in our experiment. Percent inhibition of both pollen concentrations against A. alternata and F. oxysporium was lower than 50%. However, both concentrations of Alanya and Beysehir propolis extracts were 100% effective on mycelial growth of F. oxysporium until the 7th day of incubation (P < 0.01). 2% Alanya and Beysehir pollen extracts completely stimulated mycelial growth of F. oxysporium on the 7th day of incubation. Both concentrations of propolis extract showed more than 50% inhibition against E. oxysporium. It is suggested that high concentrations ofpropolis extract could be used as an antifungal agent against tested fungi.

PMID: 15285109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Planta Med. 2004 Jun;70(6):515-9.

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Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Greek propolis.

Melliou E, Chinou I.

Division of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Athens, 157-71 Athens, Greece.

One new 2,3-dihydroflavone derivative, 7- O-prenylstrobopinin, and 25 known diterpenes and phenolic compounds were identified from the n-butanol extract of Greek propolis. This is the first time that diterpenes have been isolated from propolis of European origin, while six of the known compounds are reported as propolis constituents for the first time. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly by the concerted application of 1D, 2D NMR techniques (HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and mass spectrometry. The studied sample and the isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram (+/-) bacteria and fungi and five of them exhibited strong activities.

PMID: 15229802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: J Med Food. 2004 Spring;7(1):114-6.

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Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 by pollen and propolis extracts.

Ozcan M.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

The inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of Aspergillus parasiticus strain NRRL 2998 of pollen and propolis extracts from different regions of Turkey were investigated in culture media. The least active concentration towards the tested fungus was 2% of both extracts. But, the inhibitory effects of all propolis extracts on mycelial growth were higher when compared with pollen extracts. While the effect of a 5% level of Antakya propolis extract increased with increasing incubation period, the antifungal effect of pollen extract from the same region on mycelial growth was less than that of the control group. As a result, none of the extracts tested completely inhibited mycelial growth. The highest inhibition rate was established at the 5% level of Taskent and Alanya propolis samples.

PMID: 15117563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Med Food. 2004 Spring;7(1):90-4.

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An in vitro study on antimicrobial activity of propolis from Mugla province of Turkey.

Ugur A, Arslan T.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mugla University, Kotekli-Mugla, Turkey.

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extracts of 45 different propolis samples from the Mugla province of Turkey were investigated. Antimicrobial activity of propolis varied depending on propolis sample, dosage of propolis, and the extraction solvents for all test microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of all propolis samples increased with increasing dosage without reaching a plateau at the highest dosage tested. Except for Brucella melitensis, the DMSO extracts of all propolis samples were more active than the acetone extracts of the same samples. For B. melitensis, the acetone extracts of all propolis samples showed greater activity. The most sensitive microorganism to propolis was Shigella sonnei in the gram-negative group and Streptococcus mutans in the gram-positive group. The least sensitive microorganism was Candida albicans. A control test run with standard antibiotics revealed that propolis samples from the Mugla province of Turkey has a similar or greater inhibitory effect on S. mutans, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. sonnei, and C. albicans growth.

PMID: 15117559 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;38(2):87-92.

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Chemical composition and microbicidal activity of extracts from Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis.

Salomao K, Dantas AP, Borba CM, Campos LC, Machado DG, Aquino Neto FR, de Castro SL.

Dept. de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular Dept. de Micologia Dept. de Bacteriologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

AIMS: The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from a Brazilian (Et-Bra) and a Bulgarian (Et-Blg) propolis, and their activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, several fungi and bacteria species were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The chemical composition was determined by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Microbiological activity was assayed in vitro against T. cruzi, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Et-Bra and Et-Blg, although with totally distinct compositions, were active against T. cruzi and the three species of fungi. Et-Blg was more effective than Et-Bra against bacteria, particularly N. meningitidis and Strep. pneumoniae. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Although with different classes of components, both propolis extracts showed microbicidal activity. For the bactericidal activity it was possible to establish a positive correlation with the high content of flavonoids of the Bulgarian extract.

PMID: 14746537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Microbiol Res. 2003;158(4):353-7.

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and synergism between propolis and antimicrobial drugs.

Stepanovic S, Antic N, Dakic I, Svabic-Vlahovic M.

Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extract of 13 propolis (EEP) samples from different regions of Serbia against 39 microorganisms (14 resistant or multiresistant to antibiotics), and to determine synergistic activity between antimicrobials and propolis. Antimicrobial activity of propolis samples was evaluated by agar diffusion and agar dilution method. The synergistic action of propolis with antimicrobial drugs was assayed by the disc diffusion method on agar containing subinhibitory concentrations of propolis. Obtained results indicate that EEP, irrespectively of microbial resistance to antibiotics, showed significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC 0.078%-1.25% of EEP) and yeasts (0.16%-1.25%), while Gram-negative bacteria were less susceptible (1.25%-->5%). Enterococcus faecalis was the most resistant Gram-positive bacterium, Salmonella spp. the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans the most resistant yeast. EEP showed synergism with selected antibiotics, and displayed ability to enhance the activities of antifungals. The shown antimicrobial potential of propolis alone or in combination with certain antibiotics and antifungals is of potential medical interest.

PMID: 14717457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Mutat Res. 2003 Nov;544(2-3):195-201.

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Dietary components may prevent mutation-related diseases in humans.

Ribeiro LR, Salvadori DM.

Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Since it is not always possible to reduce human exposure to mutagens, attempts have been directed to identify potential antimutagens and anticarcinogens for use in protecting the population against environmental disease. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with information about the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potentials of some dietary constituents and foods widely consumed in Brazil, and to reinforce diet as a key factor in determining genomic stability and preventing human diseases. In this report, we have summarized data that show interactive effects between some dietary components and specific chemical mutagens or carcinogens using in vitro and in vivo short- or medium-term assays. The summary indicates that certain dietary compounds may be useful agents for disease prevention.

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PMID: 14644321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: J Chemother. 2003 Oct;15(5):454-60.

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Effect of propolis on virulence factors of Candida albicans.

D'Auria FD, Tecca M, Scazzocchio F, Renzini V, Strippoli V.

Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Rome La Sapienza, P.le A.Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. felicia.d'

Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from plant sources. Its antimicrobial activity has been well documented but little is specifically known about its activity on virulence factors of Candida albicans. The aim of this work was therefore to evaluate in vitro the propolis effect on yeast-mycelial conversion (Y-M), extracellular phospholipase activity and fungal adhesion to epithelial cells. The two propolis samples used significantly inhibited the C. albicans strains tested, showing a rapid (between 30 seconds and 15 minutes), dose-dependent cytocidal activity and an inhibitory effect on Y-M conversion at a concentration of 0.22 mg/ml. Moreover, the hyphal length was reduced even at lower propolis concentration. Propolis also caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of phospholipase activity. No clear effect was shown on adherence to buccal epithelial cells and surface structure hydrophobicity, but damage to the plasma membrane structure was demonstrated with the Propidium Iodide test.

PMID: 14598937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Oct;88(2-3):189-93.

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Flavonoids and trypanocidal activity of Bulgarian propolis.

Prytzyk E, Dantas AP, Salomao K, Pereira AS, Bankova VS, De Castro SL, Neto FR.

Ladetec, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Cidade Universitaria, CT Bl.
A, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Acetone and ethanol extracts of two Bulgarian propolis samples (Bur and Lov) were investigated by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HT-HRGC-MS), and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated. The ethanol extracts--Et-Bur and Et-Lov--showed similar composition, with a high content of flavonoids, and strong inhibitory activity against T. cruzi proliferative epimastigotes, which were more susceptible than trypomastigotes. In the presence of blood, the activity of Et-Bur or Et-Lov against trypomastigotes was similar to that of the standard drug, crystal violet. Both extracts also showed similar and significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, while being inactive against Escherichia coli. The acetone extract, Ket-Bur, was more active than Et-Bur against both forms of T. cruzi.

PMID: 12963141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):69-73.

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Antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from two different regions of Anatolia.

Kartal M, Yildiz S, Kaya S, Kurucu S, Topcu G.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara, Turkey.

Antimicrobial activity of two propolis samples from Kazan and Marmaris regions in Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was tested with four different ethanolic extracts (30, 50, 70, and 96% ethanol) of each sample against seven Gram positive, four Gram negative bacteria and one fungus culture. The activity was found to be mainly due to caffeic acid and its esters. An isomeric mixture containing 3,3-dimethylallyl caffeate, and isopent-3-enyl caffeate was isolated from Kazan propolis samples.

PMID: 12686444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Jan;53(Pt 1):339-43.

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Starmerella meliponinorum sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species associated with stingless bees.

Teixeira AC, Marini MM, Nicoli JR, Antonini Y, Martins RP, Lachance MA, Rosa CA.

Departamento de Microbiologia, ICB, CP 486, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901, Brazil.

Thirty-two strains of the novel species Starmerella meliponinorum sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates associated with three stingless bee species (tribe Meliponini) in Brazil and one in Costa Rica. The strains were found in garbage pellets (faecal material, discarded pollen or food, etc.), pollen provisions, adult bees, honey and propolis of Tetragonisca angustula, in honey from Melipona quadritasciata and in adults of Melipona rufiventris and Trigona fulviventris. The sequence of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that the novel species belongs to the Starmerella clade and is most closely related to Candida etchellsii, although the two differ in their sequences by 7% base substitutions. S. meliponinorum is homothallic and assimilates few carbon sources. Nitrate is utilized as a sole nitrogen source. The type strain of S. meliponinorum is strain UFMG-01-J26.1T (=CBS 9117T).

PMID: 12656193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2002;35(3):203-7.

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Comparative study of in vitro methods used to analyse the activity of propolis extracts with different compositions against species of Candida.

Sawaya AC, Palma AM, Caetano FM, Marcucci MC, da Silva Cunha IB, Araujo CE, Shimizu MT.

Universidade Sao Francisco, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Braganca Paulista, SP, Brazil.

AIMS: Propolis is known for its activity against micro-organisms and different in vitro assays have been used to evaluate this activity, frequently with contradictory results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Brazilian propolis from the state of Sao Paulo was extracted by maceration using different concentrations of ethanol and water. The resultant extracts were analysed by chromatographic methods. Several microbiological methods were compared to determine which one best evaluated the activity of the propolis extracts against species of Candida, with average minimal inhibitory concentration values between 6 and 12 mg ml(-1). CONCLUSIONS: Agar dilution in plates showed the clearest results. These were in agreement with the chromatographic analyses, which also identified the active substances. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Although the active substances identified in this sample are typical of Brazilian propolis, their activity against Candida had not been recognized previously, demonstrating the importance of standardizing the correct combination of microbiological and chromatographic analyses.

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       Evaluation Studies

PMID: 12180941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Mar-Apr;57(3-4):395-402.

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Egyptian propolis: 3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of propolis from reclaimed lands.

Hegazi AG, Abd El Hady FK.

Department of Parasitology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The free radical scavenging effect of two propolis samples collected from reclaimed land, Egypt as well as of vitamin C and caffeic acid in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical system was determined. The antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) activity was also investigated. The results of the free radical scavenging effect of El-Saff and Ismailia propolis showed a concentration-dependent activity. The antioxidant activity was varied according to the examined material. It was obvious that caffeic acid and vitamin C showed the highest activity if compared with the propolis samples. El- Saff propolis had a higher antioxidant activity than Ismailia propolis, it showed a higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and a higher anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans. While the Ismailia propolis had a higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, than El-Saff propolis. The chemical composition of propolis samples was investigated by GC/MS, where 75 compounds were identified, 22 being new for propolis. The Ismailia propolis was characterized by the presence of a highly significant amount of aromatic acid esters (47.3%) and triterpenoids (17.3%), while El-Saff propolis contained 3% and 1.9% respectively. The new esters belonged to 4-methoxyhydrocinnamic acid, hydroferulic acid and ferulic acid. El-Saff propolis had a very high significant amount (27%) of 2,6-bis-(pentanyloxy)-4-pentanylphenethanol, which is also a new compound for propolis.

PMID: 12064746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Mar-Apr;57(3-4):386-94.

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Egyptian propolis: 2. Chemical composition, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of East Nile Delta propolis.

Abd El Hady FK, Hegazi AG.

Department of Chemistry of Natural Products, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Three propolis samples from East Nile Delta, Egypt were collected. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS,103 compounds were identified, 20 being new for propolis. Dakahlia propolis was a typical poplar propolis but it contained two new caffeate esters and two new triterpenoids. Ismailia propolis was characterized by the presence of new triterpenic acid methyl esters and it did not contain any aromatic acids, esters and flavonoids. Sharkia propolis was characterized by the presence of caffeate esters only, some di- and triterpenoids. The antiviral (Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Reo-Virus) and antimicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) activities of propolis samples were investigated. Dakahlia propolis showed the highest antiviral activity against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the highest antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While Ismailia propolis had the highest antiviral activity against Reo-virus. Sharkia propolis showed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and moderate antiviral activity against infectious bursal disease virus and reovirus.

PMID: 12064745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: J Oral Sci. 2002 Mar;44(1):41-8.

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Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis.

Martins RS, Pereira ES Jr, Lima SM, Senna MI, Mesquita RA, Santos VR.

Department of Clinical Pathology and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Minas Gerais Federal University, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The present study assessed the susceptibility of Candida albicans strains, collected from HIV-positive patients with oral candidiasis, to a commercial 20% ethanol propolis extract (EPE) and compare it to the inhibitory action of the standardized antifungal agents nystatin (NYS), clotrimazole (CL), econazole (EC), and fluconazole (FL). Twelve C. albicans strains collected from HIV-positive patients with oral candidiasis were tested. The inhibition zones were measured with a pachimeter and the results are reported as means and standard deviation (M +/- SD). Data were analyzed statistically by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. EPE inhibited all the C. albicans strained tested. No significant difference was observed between the results obtained with NYS and EPE, while significant differences were observed between EPE and other antifungals. The C. albicans strains tested showed resistance to the remaining antifungal agents. The propolis extract used in this study inhibited the in vitro growth of C. albicans collected from HIV-seropositive Brazilian patients, creating/forming inhibition zones like those ones formed by NYS. This fact suggests that commercial EPE could be an alternative medicine in the treatment of candidiasis from HIV-positive patients. However, in vivo studies of the effect of EPE are needed to determine its possible effects on the oral mucosa.

PMID: 12058869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Mar;79(3):331-4.

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Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on fungicidal activity of macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

Murad JM, Calvi SA, Soares AM, Bankova V, Sforcin JM.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, IB-UNESP, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. Its etiological agent, Paracoccidoides brasiliensis, affects individuals living in endemic areas through inhalation of airborne conidia or mycelial fragments. The disease may affect different organs and systems, with multiple clinical features, with cell-mediated immunity playing a significant role in host defence. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated with Brazilian or Bulgarian propolis and subsequently challenged with P. brasiliensis. Data suggest an increase in the fungicidal activity of macrophages by propolis stimulation, independently from its geographic origin.

PMID: 11849837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Mycoses. 2001 Nov;44(9-10):375-8.

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Antifungal activity of propolis on different species of Candida.

Ota C, Unterkircher C, Fantinato V, Shimizu MT.

Dental School, UNESP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil.

Propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from the buds or other parts of plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The antifungal activity of propolis was studied in sensitivity tests on 80 strains of Candida yeasts: 20 strains of Candida albicans, 20 strains of Candida tropicalis, 20 strains of Candida krusei and 15 strains of Candida guilliermondii. The yeasts showed a clear antifungal activity with the following order of sensitivity: C. albicans > C. tropicalis > C. krusei > C. guilliermondii. Patients with full dentures who used a hydroalcoholic propolis extract showed a decrease in the number of Candida.

PMID: 11766101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(7-8):593-6.

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New bioactive chalcones in propolis from El Salvador.

Popova M, Bankova V, Spassov S, Tsvetkova I, Naydenski C, Silva MV, Tsartsarova M.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

2',3'-Dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (1) and 2',3',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-chalcone, two new chalcones, were isolated from propolis from El Salvador. The compounds showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity and moderate toxicity to Artemia salina nauplii.

PMID: 11531095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2001 Jan-Feb;56(1-2):82-8.

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Egyptian propolis: 1-antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Upper Egypt propolis.

Hegazi AG, El Hady FK.

Department of Parasitology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples collected from Upper Egypt against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was evaluated. There was a variation in the antimicrobial activity according to the propolis origin. Banisweif propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, but Fayoum propolis had moderate activity against all tested pathogens. Propolis collected from Assiut and Souhag gave lower antimicrobial activity. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS, 71 compounds were identified, 14 being new for propolis. Banisweif propolis is characterized by the presence of 7 caffeate esters and 4 triterpenoids. Fayoum propolis showed the highest amount of lactic acid and the presence of 3 chalcones. But Assiut propolis is characterized by the presence of 4 prenylated coumarates. Souhag propolis is characterized by the presence of 5 aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and some other new compounds to propolis.

PMID: 11302219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Chemother. 2000 Oct;12(5):390-5.

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Erratum in:

       J Chemother 2001 Feb;13(1):102.

In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis dry extract.

Drago L, Mombelli B, De Vecchi E, Fassina MC, Tocalli L, Gismondo MR.

Clinical Microbiology, L. Sacco Teaching Hospital, University of Milan, Italy.

In this study the antibacterial and antifungal properties of propolis, a natural product of bees, have been investigated against different pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined according to NCCLS standards on 320 strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Time-kill curves were assessed for susceptible microorganisms, testing 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 x MIC for propolis, by counting viable bacteria after 0, 3, 6, 24 hours and viable yeasts after 0, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours. Propolis showed good antimicrobial activity against most of the isolates, particularly S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but not against Enterobacteriaceae. Time-kill curves demonstrated bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal activity of propolis, the latter being evident only at high concentrations.

PMID: 11128558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2000 Sep-Oct;55(9-10):785-9.

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Chemical composition and biological activity of propolis from Brazilian meliponinae.

Velikova M, Bankova V, Marcucci MC, Tsvetkova I, Kujumgiev A.

Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

Twenty-one propolis samples produced by 12 different Meliponinae species were analyzed by GC-MS. Several chemical types of stingless bees' propolis could be grouped, according to the prevailing type of compounds like: 'gallic acid", "diterpenic" and "triterpenic" types. The results confirm that neither the bee species nor the geographical location determine the chemical composition of Meliponinae propolis and the choice of its plant source, respectively. This could be explained by the fact that Meliponinae forage over short distances (maximum 500 m) and thus use as propolis source the first plant exudate they encounter during their flights. The antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the samples were also investigated. Most samples had weak or no activity against E. coli, weak action against Candida albicans. Some of them showed significant activity against St. aureus., presumably connected to the high concentration of diterpenic acids. Samples rich in diterpenic acids possessed also high cytotoxic activity (Artemia salina test).

PMID: 11098831 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Parassitologia. 1999 Dec;41(4):587-90.

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Antifungal activity of Apulia region propolis.

Cafarchia C, De Laurentis N, Milillo MA, Losacco V, Puccini V.

Department of Animal Health and Welfare, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Italy.

A study was carried out to assess the in vitro antifungal activity of some natural Apulian propolis extracts of different origin. Their antifungal activity was compared to the antifungal activity of conifers and commercial propolis extracts. All extracts revealed antifungal activity against dermatophytes and Candida species. The antifungal activity differences found depended on the origin of the propolis and the solvent used for extraction. The best antifungal activity was given by the 'Orimini' propolis. The antifungal activity may have been influenced by the presence of different cinnamic and flavonoid components and their different concentration in the extracts. Further investigations are needed to validate this hypothesis.

PMID: 10870567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2000 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):70-5.

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Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of European propolis.

Hegazi AG, Abd El Hady FK, Abd Allah FA.

Department of Parasitology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Three propolis samples from Austria, Germany and France were investigated by GC/MS, where eleven compounds were being new for propolis. The samples showed some similarities in their qualitative composition. Phenylethyl-trans-caffeate, benzyl ferulate and galangin were predominant in German propolis. Benzyl caffeate was predominant in French sample. Pinocembrin was predominant in French and Austrian propolis and trans-p-coumaric acid was predominant in all samples. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans was evaluated. German propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. While Austrian propolis has the highest activity against Candida albicans. French propolis was effective against all pathogens but less than German and Austrian propolis.

PMID: 10739103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Arch Oral Biol. 2000 Feb;45(2):141-8.

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica montana against oral pathogens.

Koo H, Gomes BP, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Park YK, Cury JA.

School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Canipinas, Areiao, S.P., Brazil.

Arnica and propolis have been used for thousands of years in folk medicine for several purposes. They possess several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and tissue regenerative, among others. Although the antibacterial activity of propolis has already been demonstrated, very few studies have been done on bacteria of clinical relevance in dentistry. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Arnica has not been extensively investigated. Therefore the aim here was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity, inhibition of adherence of mutans streptococci and inhibition of formation of water-insoluble glucan by Arnica and propolis extracts. Arnica montana (10%, w/v) and propolis (10%, w/v) extracts from Minas Gerais State were compared with controls. Fifteen microorganisms were used as follows: Candida albicans--NTCC 3736, F72; Staphylococcus aureus--ATCC 25923; Enterococcus faecalis--ATCC 29212; Streptococcus sobrinus 6715; Strep. sanguis--ATCC 10556; Strep. cricetus--HS-6; Strep. mutans--Ingbritt 1600; Strep. mutans--OMZ 175; Actinomyces naeslundii--ATCC 12104, W 1053; Act. viscosus OMZ 105; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Porph. endodontalis and Prevotella denticola (the last three were clinical isolates). Antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method and the zones of growth inhibition were measured. To assess cell adherence to a glass surface, the organisms were grown for 18 h at 37 degrees C in test-tubes at a 30 degree angle. To assay water-insoluble glucan formation, a mixture of crude glucosyltransferase and 0.125 M sucrose was incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C in test-tubes at a 30 degree angle. Arnica and propolis extracts (20 microl) were added to these tubes to evaluate the % of inhibition of cell adherence and water-insoluble glucan formation. The propolis extract significantly inhibited all the microorganisms tested (p < 0.05), showing the largest inhibitory zone for Actinomyces spp. The Arnica extract did not demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity. Cell adherence and water-insoluble glucan formation were almost completely inhibited by the propolis extract at a final concentration of 400 microg/ml and 500 microg/ml, respectively. The Arnica extract showed slight inhibition of the adherence of the growing cells (19% for Strep. mutans and 15% for Strep. sobrinus) and of water-insoluble glucan formation (29%) at these same concentrations. Thus, the propolis extract showed in vitro antibacterial activity, inhibition of cell adherence and inhibition of water-insoluble glucan formation, while the Arnica extract was only slightly active in those three conditions.

PMID: 10716618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1999 May-Jun;54(5-6):401-5.

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Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from Sao Paulo state.

Bankova V, Boudourova-Krasteva G, Sforcin JM, Frete X, Kujumgiev A, Maimoni-Rodella R, Popov S.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. IOCHNP@BGCICT.ACAD.BG

Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in Sao Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate.

PMID: 10431391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: J Nat Prod. 1999 Jul;62(7):1013-5.

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A polyisoprenylated benzophenone from Cuban propolis.

Rubio OC, Cuellar Cuellar A, Rojas N, Castro HV, Rastrelli L, Aquino R.

Institute for Pharmacy and Food (IFAL), University of Havana, Ave. 23, 21425, Lisa, C. Habana, Cuba.

A novel polyisoprenylated benzophenone (1) has been isolated from an ethanol extract of Cuban propolis. Its structure has been determined using high-field 2D NMR techniques. Compound 1 showed significant antimicrobial and antifungal activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts.

PMID: 10425129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Mar;64(3):235-40.

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Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin.

Kujumgiev A, Tsvetkova I, Serkedjieva Y, Bankova V, Christov R, Popov S.

Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.

Propolis samples from different geographic origins were investigated for their antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), antifungal (against Candida albicans) and antiviral (against Avian influenza virus) activities. All samples were active against the fungal and Gram-positive bacterial test strains, and most showed antiviral activity. The activities of all samples were similar in spite of the differences in their chemical composition. In samples from the temperate zone, flavonoids and esters of phenolic acids are known to be responsible for the above mentioned activities of bee glue; tropical samples did not contain such substances but showed similar activities. Obviously, in different samples, different substance combinations are essential for the biological activity of the bee glue. It seems that propolis has general pharmacological value as a natural mixture and not as a source of new powerful antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral compounds.

PMID: 10363838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1998;43(2):156-60.

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Use of propolis and ultragriseofulvin to inhibit aflatoxigenic fungi.

Ghaly MF, Ezzat SM, Sarhan MM.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) at 3 and 4 g/L and ultragriseofulvin (UG) at 0.75 and 1 g/L reduced the percentage of conidia germination in two Aspergillus flavus isolates. PEE at 1-4 g/L decreased the mycelial dry mass of A. flavus isolates by 11-80%, and aflatoxin B1 production by 34-100%. UG concentrations of 0.25-1 g/L reduced the growth and aflatoxin B1 production of the isolates by 16-88 and 48-98%, respectively. Any increase in PEE and UG concentration was accompanied by a clear decrease in the per cent conidia germination, growth and aflatoxin B1 production. At equal concentration, UG was about 4-times more effective than PEE.

PMID: 9721607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Tsitol Genet. 1996 Nov-Dec;30(6):48-55.

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[The antimutagenic action of apiculture products]

[Article in Russian]

Bariliak IR, Berdyshev GD, Dugan AM.

Using the battery of test-systems, we studied the possible antimutagenic activity of some products of apiculture. It is established that apilak-preparation made on the basis of queen bee milk didn't show gene-protective abilities in Ames test. The rest products of apiculture: propolis, beebread, honey preparations N1 and N2, and queen bee milk manifested to some degree their ability to decrease the mutagenic effects of some chemical and physical mutagens. The toxic effect of propolis upon yeast cells was established. Queen bee milk manifested the least antimutagenic properties (on all test-objects used in experiments).

PMID: 9139438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Microbios. 1990;62(250):19-22.

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Antibiotic activity of natural products: 1. Propolis.

Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM, Franklin I.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Royal Free Hospital, Hampstead, London, Great Britain.

Material extracted from propolis (bee glue) by alkaline aqueous solvents or organic solvents showed weak inhibitory activity in vitro against certain species of Gram-positive bacteria. No antimicrobial activity was detected in urine from three volunteers who had taken 500 mg propolis three times a day for 3 days.

PMID: 2110610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Rev Chir Oncol Radiol O R L Oftalmol Stomatol Ser Stomatol. 1989 Apr-Jun;36(2):91-8.

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[Apiphytotherapeutic original preparations in the treatment of chronic marginal parodontopathies. A clinical and microbiological study]

[Article in Romanian]

Gafar M, Dumitriu H, Dumitriu S, Guti L.

The paper presents results obtained by the treatment of chronic marginal parodontopathies with natural products of apiarian derivatives and vegetal extracts. These are original preparations such as Proparodont, sage extracts, watercress extracts, etc., by comparison with other similar existing products, and with zinc chloride. The clinical study evaluated the "inflammation status of the marginal prodontium" on the basis of variations in the PMA index. The microbiological study has established the bacteriostatic and the bactericidal activities of the products employed. The results obtained stress the high antimicrobial activity of the original products called Proparodont, and stress its antimycotic effects, especially against Candida albicans. The blackwort (Symphytum off.) extracts have a good repair effect, especially after surgical procedures. The complex original products based on propolis and vegetal extracts are indicated in the treatment of inflammatory lesions of the gingivo-parodontal tissues, and of the buccal mucosa. They also have antimicrobial effects, as well as antimycotic, antiinflammatory and antiscar effects. They de not have side effects which are characteristic for other medicinal drugs employed in the treatment of chronic marginal parodontopathies.

PMID: 2535077 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Minerva Med. 1983 Sep 15;74(35):2029-32.

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[Bacteriological and clinical notes on otitis externa in saturation. Double-blind study on the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic preparations]

[Article in Italian]

Marroni A, Arduini R, Conti S.

Microbiological analysis of the variation in the bacterial flora of the external auditory canal was carried out during 39 immersion in saturated solutions. A double blind test on the usefulness of prophylactic and therapeutic preparations was also carried out. Prophylactics. - 5% Al acetate in H2O (P1), Boric alcohol (P2), lactic acid in H2O (P3, Domeboro (P4), no prophylactic (P0). After the immersions, a significant increase in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Candida Albicans (p less than 0,01) was noted in the auricular bacterial flora. Gram positive bacteria in general were considerably reduced (p less than 0,01). Gram negative bacteria other than pseudomonas. A (p less than 0,3) and coagulase negative straphylococci (p less than 0,03) did not vary significantly. Prophylactic preparations P1 and P2 were shown to be significantly more effective than P3, P4 and P0 in preventing the symptomatology (p less than 0,01). The most effective therapeutic preparation was found to be a locally applied gentamycinpolymixin association.

Publication Types:

       Clinical Trial

PMID: 6412179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Pharmazie. 1982 Jun;37(6):439-40.

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Inhibition of growth and biosynthesis of ochratoxin A in Aspergillus sulphureus NRRL 4077 by propolis extract.

Pepeljnjak S, Jalsenjak I, Maysinger D.

Growth inhibition of Aspergillus sulphureus NRRL 4077 and biosynthesis of ochratoxin A in the presence of propolis was investigated. Although the growth of the micro-organism was inhibited at all concentrations of applied propolis extract up to d 10 of incubation, only the 2.0 mg/ml concentration of propolis exhibited definite fungistatic activity. Ochratoxin A was detected in all culture media, but its amounts were low in the first 10 d of experiment. In comparison with the control culture, the amounts of ochratoxin A were proportional to the growth of A. sulphureus and reciprocal to the amounts of propolis extract used.

PMID: 7122687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Pharmazie. 1979;34(2):97-102.

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[On the antimicrobial activity of propolis and propolis constituents (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Metzner J, Bekemeier H, Paintz M, Schneidewind E.

After a survey of the literature on the antimicrobial activity of the bee product propolis, the authors discuss their own findings as compared to the chemotherapeutical agents streptomycin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, nystatin, griseofulvin and sulphamerazine. According to the results obtained by testing 25 isolated constituents on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the antimicrobial properties of this mixture of natural substances are mainly attributable to the flavonoids pinocembrin, galangin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin-3-acetate as well as to the p-coumaric acid benzyl ester and a caffeic acid ester mixture. None of the isolated substances was as potent as the antibiotics tested for the purpose of comparison. The relatively good antimycetic activity of the 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone pinocembrin seems noteworthy. Finally, possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial action of the flavonoids are discussed.

PMID: 108687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Pharmazie. 1977 Nov;32(11):730.

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[Effect of propolis and pinocembrin on fungi]

[Article in German]

Metzner J, Schneidewind EM, Friedrich E.

PMID: 609603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Antibiotiki. 1976 May;21(5):422-3.

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[Fractionation of the mixture of volatile with steam components of propolis and the study of their antimicrobial activity]

[Article in Russian]

Kivalkina VP, Rybkina NI, Barskov AA, Geras'kin IM, Talan VA.

PMID: 828845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Pharmazie. 1976;31(1):55.

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[Action of propolis on dermatophytes]

[Article in German]

Cizmarik J, Trupl J.

PMID: 1257286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Pharmazie. 1975 Jun;30(6):406-7.

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[The action of propolis on saccharomycetes]

[Article in German]

Cizmarik J, Trupl J.

PMID: 1099582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Pharmazie. 1975 Dec;30(12):799-800.

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[Bioautographic detection of the antimicrobial active constituents of propolis]

[Article in German]

Metzner J, Bekemeier H, Schneidewind E, Schwaiberger R.

PMID: 815918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Pharmazie. 1975 Dec;30(12):803.

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[The constitutents of propolis]

[Article in German]

Schneidewind EM, Kala H, Linzer B, Metzner J.

PMID: 768996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]